Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002


 

Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002

 

 

  • Section 1. Short title, extent and commencement
  • Section 2. Definitions
  • Section 3. Registration of securitisation companies or reconstruction companies
  • Section 4. Cancellation of certificate of registration
  • Section 5. Acquisition of rights or interest in financial assets
  • Section 5 A. Transfer of pending applications to any one of Debts Recovery Tribunals in certain cases
  • Section 6. Notice to obligor and discharge of obligation of such obligor
  • Section 7. Issue of security by raising of receipts or funds by securitisation company or reconstruction company
  • Section 8. Exemption from registration of security receipt
  • Section 9. Measures for assets reconstruction
  • Section 10. Other functions of securitization company or reconstruction company
  • Section 11. Resolution of disputes
  • Section 12. Power of Reserve Bank to determine policy and issue directions
  • Section 12 A. Power of Reserve Bank to call for statements and information
  • Section 13. Enforcement of security interest
  • Section 14. Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or District Magistrate to assist secured creditor in taking possession of secured asset
  • Section 15. Manner and effect of take over of management
  • Section 16. No compensation to directors for loss of office
  • Section 17. Right to appeal
  • Section 17 A. Making of application to Court of District Judge in certain cases
  • Section 18. Appeal to Appellate Tribunal
  • Section 18 A. Validation of fees levied
  • Section 18 B. Appeal to High Court in certain cases
  • Section 19. Right of borrower to receive compensation and costs in certain cases
  • Section 20. Central Registry
  • Section 21. Central Registrar
  • Section 22. Register of securitisation, reconstruction and security interest transactions
  • Section 23. Filing of transactions of securitisation, reconstruction and creation of security interest
  • Section 24. Modification of security interest registered under this Act
  • Section 25. Securitisation company or reconstruction company or secured creditor to report satisfaction of security interest
  • Section 26. Right to inspect particulars of securitisation, reconstruction and security interest transactions
  • Section 27. Penalties
  • Section 28. Penalties for non-compliance of direction of Reserve Bank
  • Section 29. Offences
  • Section 30. Cognizance of offence
  • Section 31. Provisions of this Act not to apply in certain cases
  • Section 32. Protection of action taken in good faith
  • Section 33. Offences by companies
  • Section 34. Civil Court not to have jurisdiction
  • Section 35. The provisions of this Act to override other laws
  • Section 36. Limitation
  • Section 37. Application of other laws not barred
  • Section 38. Power of Central Government to make rules
  • Section 39. Certain provisions of this Act to apply after Central Registry is set up or cause to be set up
  • Section 40. Power to remove difficulties
  • Section 41. Amendments to certain enactments
  • Section 42. Repeal and saving

Section 1. Short title, extent and commencement

 

[Act No. 2 of 2002]

An Act to regulate securitisation and reconstruction of financial assets and enforcement of security interest and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Be it enacted by Parliament in the Fifty-third Year of the Republic of India as follows :—

(1) This Act may be called the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002.

(2) It extends to the whole of India.

(3) It shall be deemed to have come into force on the 21st day of June, 2002.

Section 2. Definitions

 

(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—

(a) “Appellate Tribunal” means a Debts Recovery Appellate Tribunal established under sub-section (1) of section 8 of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993);

(b) “asset reconstruction” means acquisition by any securitisation company or reconstruction company of any right or interest of any bank or financial institution in any financial assistance for the purpose of realisation of such financial assistance;

(c) “bank” means—

(i) a banking company; or

(ii) a corresponding new bank; or

(iii) the Slate Bank of India; or

(iv) a subsidiary bank; or

(v) such other bank which the Central Government may, by notification, specify for the purposes of this Act;

(d) “banking company” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (c) of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949);

(e) “Board” means the Securities and Exchange Board of India established under section 3 of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992);

(f) “borrower” means any person who has been granted financial assistance by any bank or financial institution or who has given any guarantee or created any mortgage or pledge as security for the financial assistance granted by any bank or financial institution and includes a person who becomes borrower of a securitisation company or reconstruction company consequent upon acquisition by it of any rights or interest of any bank or financial institution in relation to such financial assistance;

(g) “Central Registry” means the registry set up or cause to be set up under sub-section (1) of section 20;

(h) “corresponding new bank” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (da) of section 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 (10 of 1949);

1[(ha) “debt” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (g) of Section 2 of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993)];

(i) “Debts Recovery Tribunal” means the Tribunal established under sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993);

(j) “default” means non-payment of any principal debt or interest thereon or any other amount payable by a borrower to any secured creditor consequent upon which the account of such borrower is classified as non-performing asset in the books of account of the secured creditor 2[***];

(k) “financial assistance” means any loan or advance granted or any debentures or bonds subscribed or any guarantees given or letters of credit established or any other credit facility extended by any bank or financial institution;

(l) “financial asset” means debt or receivables and includes—

(i) a claim to any debt or receivables or part thereof, whether secured or unsecured; or

(ii) any debt or receivables secured by, mortgage of, or charge on, immovable property; or

(iii) a mortgage, charge, hypothecation or pledge of movable property; or

(iv) any right or interest in the security, whether full or part underlying such debt or receivables; or

(v) any beneficial interest in property, whether movable or immovable, or in such debt, receivables, whether such interest is existing, future, accruing, conditional or contingent; or

(vi) any financial assistance;

(m) “financial institution” means—

(i) a public financial institution within the meaning of section 4A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

(ii) any institution specified by the Central Government under sub-clause (n) of clause (h) of section 2 of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993);

(iii) the International Finance Corporation established under the International Finance Corporation (Status, Immunities and Privileges) Act, 1958 (42 of 1958);

(iv) any other institution or non-banking financial company as defined in clause (f) of section 45-1 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934), which the Central Government may, by notification, specify as financial institution for the purposes of this Act;

(n) “hypothecation” means a charge in or upon any movable property, existing or future, created by a borrower in favour of a secured creditor without delivery of possession of the movable property to such creditor, as a security for financial assistance and includes floating charge and crystallization of such charge into fixed charge on movable property;

(o) “non-performing asset” means an asset or account of a borrower, which has been classified by a bank or financial institution as substandard, doubtful or loss asset:-

3[(a) in case such bank or financial institution is administered or regulated by any authority or body established, constituted or appointed by any law for the time being in force, in accordance with the directions or guidelines relating to assets classifications issued by such authority or body;

(b) in any other case, in accordance with the directions or guidelines relating to assets classifications issued by the Reserve Bank;]”

(p) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette;

(q) “obliger” means a person liable to the originator, whether under a contract or otherwise, to pay a financial asset or to discharge any obligation in respect of a financial asset, whether existing, future, conditional or contingent and includes the borrower;

(r) “originator” means the owner of a financial asset which is acquired by a securitisation company or reconstruction company for the purpose of securitisation or asset reconstruction;

(s) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

(t) “property” means—

(i) immovable property;

(ii) movable property;

(iii) any debt or any right to receive payment of money, whether secured or unsecured;

(iv) receivables, whether existing or future;

(v) intangible assets, being know-how, patent, copyright, trade mark, licence, franchise or any other business or commercial right of similar nature;

(u) “qualified institutional buyer” means a financial institution, insurance company, bank, state financial corporation, state industrial development corporation, 4[trustee or securitisation company or reconstruction company which has been granted a certificate of registration under sub-section (4) of Section 3 or any asset management company making investment on behalf of mutual fund] or a foreign institutional investor registered under the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992) or regulations made thereunder, or any other body corporate as may be specified by the Board;

(v) “reconstruction company” means a company formed and registered under the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) for the purpose of asset reconstruction;

(w) “Registrar of Companies” means the Registrar defined in clause (40) of section 2 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956);

(x) “Reserve Bank” means the Reserve Bank of India constituted under section 3 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (2 of 1934);

(y) “scheme” means a scheme inviting subscription to security receipts proposed to be issued by a securitisation company or reconstruction company under that scheme;

(z) “securitisation” means acquisition of financial assets by any securitisation company or reconstruction company from any origin nator whether by raising of funds by such securitisation company or reconstruction company from qualified institutional buyers by issue of security receipts representing undivided interest in such financial assets or otherwise;

(za) “securitisation company” means any company formed and registered under the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) for the purpose of securitisation;

(zb) “security agreement” means an agreement, instrument or any other document or arrangement under which security interest is created in favour of the secured creditor including the creation of mortgage by deposit of title deeds with the secured creditor;

(zc) “secured asset” means the property on which security interest is created;

(zd) “secured creditor” means any bank or financial institution or any consortium or group of banks or financial institutions and includes—

(i) debenture trustee appointed by any bank or financial institution; or

5[(ii) securitisation company or reconstruction company, whether acting as such or managing a trust set up by such securitisation company or reconstruction company for the securitisation or reconstruction, as the case may be; or].”

(iiii) any other trustee holding securities on behalf of a bank or financial institution,

in whose favour security interest is created for due repayment by any borrower of any financial assistance;

(ze) “secured debt” means a debt which is secured by any security interest;

(zf) “security interest” means right, title and interest of any kind whatsoever upon property, created in favour of any secured creditor and includes any mortgage, charge, hypothecation, assignment other than those specified in section 31;

(zg) “security receipt” means a receipt or other security, issued by a securitisation company or reconstruction company to any qualified institutional buyer pursuant to a scheme, evidencing the purchase or acquisition by the holder thereof, of an undivided right, title or interest in the financial asset involved in securitisation;

(zh) “sponsor” means any person holding not less than ten per cent of the paid-up equity capital of a securitisation company or reconstruction company;

(zi) “State Bank of India” means the State Bank of India constituted under section 3 of the State Bank of India Act, 1955 (23 of 1955);

(zj) “subsidiary bank” shall have the meaning assigned to it in clause (k) of section 2 of the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act, 1959 (38 of 1959).

(2) Words and expressions used and not defined in this Act but defined in the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872) or the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (4 of 1882) or the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) or the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992) shall have the same meanings respectively assigned to them in those Acts.

——————–

1. Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

2. The words “in accordance with the directions or guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank” Omitted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

3. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

4. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

5. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 3. Registration of securitisation companies or reconstruction companies

 

(1) No securitisation company or reconstruction company shall commence or carry on the business of securitisation or asset reconstruction without—

(a) obtaining a certificate of registration granted under this section; and

(b) having the owned fund of not less than two crore rupees or such other amount not exceeding fifteen per cent of total financial assets acquired or to be acquired by the securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the Reserve Bank may, by notification, specify:

Provided that the Reserve Bank may, by notification, specify different amounts of owned fund for different class or classes of securitisation companies or reconstruction companies:

Provided further that a securitisation company or reconstruction company, existing on the commencement of this Act, shall make an application for registration to the Reserve Bank before the expiry of six months from such commencement and notwithstanding anything contained in this sub-section may continue to carry on the business of securitisation or asset reconstruction until a certificate of registration is granted to it or, as the case may be, rejection of application for registration is communicated to it.

(2) Every securilisation company or reconstruction company shall make an application for registration to the Reserve Bank in such form and manner as it may specify.

(3) The Reserve Bank may, for the purpose of considering the application for registration of a securitisation company or reconstruction company to commence or carry on the business of securitisation or asset reconstruction, as the case may be, require to be satisfied, by an inspection of records or books of such securitisation company or reconstruction company, or otherwise, that the following conditions are fulfilled, namely:—

(a) that the securitisation company or reconstruction company has not incurred losses in any of the three preceding financial years;

(b) that such securitisation company or reconstruction company has made adequate arrangements for realisation of the financial assets acquired for the purpose of securitisation or asset reconstruction and shall be able to pay periodical returns and redeem on respective due dates on the investments made in the company by the qualified institutional buyers or other persons;

(c) that the directors of securitisation company or reconstruction company have adequate professional experience in matters related to finance, securitisation and reconstruction;

(d) that the board of directors of such securitisation company or reconstruction company does not consist of more than half of its total number of directors who are either nominees of any sponsor or associated in any manner with the sponsor or any of its subsidiaries;

(e) that any of its directors has not been convicted of any offence involving moral turpitude;

(f) that a sponsor, is not a holding company of the securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be, or, does not otherwise hold any controlling interest in such securitisation company or reconstruction company;

(g) that securitisation company or reconstruction company has complied with or is in a position to comply with prudential norms specified by the Reserve Bank.

1[(h) that securitisation company or reconstruction company has complied with one or more conditions specified in the guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank for the said purpose.]

(4) The Reserve Bank may, after being satisfied that the conditions specified in sub-section (3) are fulfilled, grant a certificate of registration to the securitisation company or the reconstruction company to commence or carry on business of securitisation or asset reconstruction, subject to such conditions, which it may consider, fit to impose.

(5) The Reserve Bank may reject the application made under sub-section (2) if it is satisfied that the conditions specified in sub-section (3) are not fulfilled:

Provided that before rejecting the application, the applicant shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(6) Every securitisation company or reconstruction company, shall obtain prior approval of the Reserve Bank for any substantial change in its management or change of location of its registered office or change in its name:

Provided that the decision of the Reserve Bank, whether the change in management of a securitisation company or a reconstruction company is a substantial change in its management or not, shall be final.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, the expression “substantial change in management” means the change in the management by way of transfer of shares or amalgamation or transfer of the business of the company.

——————–

.1. Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 4. Cancellation of certificate of registration

 

(1) The Reserve Bank may cancel a certificate of registration granted to a securitisation company or a reconstruction company, if such company—

(a) ceases to carry on the business of securitisation or asset reconstruction; or

(b) ceases to receive or hold any investment from a qualified institutional buyer; or

(c) has failed to comply with any conditions subject to which the certificate of registration has been granted to it; or

(d) at any time fails to fulfil any of the conditions referred to in cJauses (a) to (g) of sub-section (3) of section 3; or

(e) fails to—

(i) comply with any direction issued by the Reserve Bank under the provisions of this Act; or

(ii) maintain accounts in accordance with the requirements of any law or any direction or order issued by the Reserve Bank under the provisions of this Act; or

(iii) submit or offer for inspection its books of account or other relevant documents when so demanded by the Reserve Bank; or

(iv) obtain prior approval of the Reserve Bank required under subsection (6) of section 3:

Provided that before cancelling a certificate of registration on the ground that the securitisation company or reconstruction company has failed to comply with the provisions of clause (c) or has failed to fulfil any of the conditions referred to in clause (d) or sub-clause (iv) of clause (e), the Reserve Bank, unless it is of the opinion that the delay in cancelling the certificate of registration granted under sub-section (4) of section 3 shall be prejudicial to the public interest or the interests of the investors or the securitisation company or the reconstruction company, shall give an opportunity to such company on such terms as the Reserve Bank may specify for taking necessary steps to comply with such provisions or fulfilment of such conditions.

(2) A securitisation company or reconstruction company aggrieved by the order of 1[***] cancellation of certificate of registration may prefer an appeal, within a period of thirty days from the date on which2[such order of cancellation] is communicated to it, to the Central Government:

Provided that before rejecting an appeal such company shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.

(3) A securitisation company or reconstruction company, which is holding investments of qualified institutional buyers and whose application for grant of certificate of registration has been rejected or certificate of registration has been cancelled shall, notwithstanding such rejection or cancellation, be deemed to be a securitisation company or reconstruction company until it repays the entire investments held by it (together with interest, if any) within such period as the Reserve Bank may direct.

——————–

1. The words rejection of application for registration or Omitted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

2. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 5. Acquisition of rights or interest in financial assets

 

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in any agreement or any other law for the time being in force, any securitisation company or reconstruction company may acquire financial assets of any bank or financial institution,—

(a) by issuing a debenture or bond or any other security in the nature of debenture, for consideration agreed upon between such company and the bank or financial institution, incorporating therein such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon between them; or

(b) by entering into an agreement with such bank or financial institution for the transfer of such financial assets to such company on such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon between them.

(2) If the bank or financial institution is a lender in relation to any financial assets acquired under sub-section (1) by the securitisation company or the reconstruction company, such securitisation company or reconstruction company shall, on such acquisition, be deemed to be the lender and all the rights of such bank or financial institution shall vest in such company in relation to such financial assets.

(3) Unless otherwise expressly provided by this Act, all contracts, deeds, bonds, agreements, powers-of-attorney, grants of legal representation, permissions, approvals, consents or no-objections under any law or otherwise and other instruments of whatever nature which relate to the said financial asset and which are subsisting or having effect immediately before the acquisition of financial asset under sub-section (1) and to which the concerned bank or financial institution is a party or which are in favour of such bank or financial institution shall, after the acquisition of the financial assets, be of as full force and effect against or in favour of the securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be, and may be enforced or acted upon as fully and effectually as if, in the place of the said bank or financial institution, securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be, had been a party thereto or as if they had been issued in favour of securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be.

(4) If, on the date of acquisition of financial asset under sub-section (1), any suit, appeal or other proceeding of whatever nature relating to the said financial asset is pending by or against the bank or financial institution, save as provided in the third proviso to sub-section (1) of section 15 of the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 (1 of 1986), the same shall not abate, or be discontinued or be, in any way, prejudicially affected by reason of the acquisition of financial asset by the securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be, but the suit, appeal or other proceeding may be continued, prosecuted and enforced by or against the securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be.

Section 5 A. Transfer of pending applications to any one of Debts Recovery Tribunals in certain cases

 

1[Transfer of pending applications to any one of Debts Recovery Tribunals in certain cases. (1) If any financial asset, of a borrower acquired by a securitisation company or reconstruction company, comprise of secured debts of more than one bank or financial institution for recovery of which such banks or financial institutions has filed applications before two or more Debts Recovery Tribunals, the securitisation company or reconstruction company may file an application to the Appellate Tribunal having jurisdiction over any of such Tribunals in which such applications are pending for transfer of alt pending applications to any one of the Debts Recovery Tribunals as it deems fit.

(2) On receipt of such application for transfer of all pending applications under sub-section (1), the Appellate Tribunal may, after giving the parties to the application an opportunity of being heard, pass an order for transfer of the pending applications to any one of the Debts Recovery Tribunals.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993), any order passed by the Appellate Tribunal under sub-section (2) shall be binding on all the Debts Recovery Tribunals referred to in sub-section (1) as it” such order had been passed by the Appellate Tribunal having jurisdiction on each such Debts Recovery Tribunal.

(4) Any recovery certificate, issued by the Debts Recovery Tribunal to which all the pending applications are transferred under sub-section (2), shall be executed in accordance with the provisions contained in sub-section (23) of Section 19 and other provisions of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993) shall, accordingly, apply to such execution.”

——————–

1. Section 5A Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 6. Notice to obligor and discharge of obligation of such obligor

 

(1) The bank or financial institution may, if it considers appropriate, give a notice of acquisition of financial assets by any securitisation company or reconstruction company, to the concerned obligor and any other concerned person and to the concerned registering authority (including Registrar of Companies) in whose jurisdiction the mortgage, charge, hypothecation, assignment or other interest created on the financial assets had been registered.

(2) Where a notice of acquisition of financial asset under sub-section (1) is given by a bank or financial institution, the obligor, on receipt of such notice, shall make payment to the concerned securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be, and payment made to such company in discharge of any of the obligations in relation to the financial asset specified in the notice shall be a full discharge to the obligor making the payment from all liability in respect of such payment.

(3) Where no notice of acquisition of financial asset under sub-section (1) is given by any bank or financial institution, any money or other properties subsequently received by the bank or financial institution, shall constitute monies or properties held in trust for the benefit of and on behalf of the securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be, and such bank or financial institution shall hold such payment or property which shall forthwith be made over or delivered to such securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be, or its agent duly authorised in this behalf.

Section 7. Issue of security by raising of receipts or funds by securitisation company or reconstruction company

 

(1) Without prejudice to the provisions contained in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956) and the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992), any securitisation company or reconstruction company, may, after acquisition of any financial asset under sub-section (1) of section 5, offer security receipts to qualified institutional buyers (other than by offer to public) for subscription in accordance with the provisions of those Acts.

(2) A securitisation company or reconstruction company may raise funds from the qualified institutional buyers by formulating schemes for acquiring financial assets and shall keep and maintain separate and distinct accounts in respect of each such scheme for every financial asset acquired out of investments made by a qualified institutional buyer and ensure that realisations of such financial asset is held and applied towards redemption of investments and payment of returns assured on such investments under the relevant scheme.

1[(2-A)(a) The scheme for the purpose of offering security receipts under sub-section (1) or raising funds under sub-section (2), may be in the nature of a trust to be managed by the securitisation company or reconstruction company, and the securitisation company or reconstruction company shall hold the assets so acquired or the funds so raised for acquiring the assets, in trust for the benefit of the qualified institutional buyers holding the security receipts or from whom the funds are raised.

(b) The provisions of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882 (2 of 1882) shall, except insofar as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, apply with respect to the trust referred to in clause (a) above.”]

(3) In the event of non-realisation under sub-section (2) of financial assets, the qualified institutional buyers of a securitisation company or reconstruction company, holding security receipts of not less than seventy-five per cent of the total value of the 2[security receipts issued under a scheme by such company], shall be entitled to call a meeting of all the qualified institutional buyers and every resolution passed in such meeting shall be binding on the company.

(4) The qualified institutional buyers shall, at a meeting called under subsection (3), follow the same procedure, as nearly as possible as is followed at meetings of the board of directors of the securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be.

——————–

1. Sub Sec. (2-A) Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

2. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 8. Exemption from registration of security receipt

 

Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) of section 17 of the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908),—

(a) any security receipt issued by the securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be, under sub-section (1) of section 7, and not creating, declaring, assigning, limiting or extinguishing any right, title or interest, to or in immovable property except insofar as it entitles the holder of the security receipt to an undivided interest afforded by a registered instrument; or

(b) any transfer of security receipts, shall not require compulsory registration.

Section 9. Measures for assets reconstruction

 

Without prejudice to the provisions contained in any other law for the time being in force, a securitisation company or reconstruction company may, for the purposes of asset reconstruction, having regard to the guidelines framed by the Reserve Bank in this behalf, provide for any one or more of the following measures, namely :—

(a) the proper management of the business of the borrower, by change in, or take over of, the management of the business of the borrower;

(b) the sale or lease of a part or whole of the business of the borrower;

(c) rescheduling of payment of debts payable by the borrower;

(d) enforcement of security interest in accordance with the provisions of this Act;

(e) settlement of dues payable by the borrower;

(f) taking possession of secured assets in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

Section 10. Other functions of securitization company or reconstruction company

 

(1) Any securitisation company or reconstruction company registered under section 3 may—

(a) act as an agent for any bank or financial institution for the purpose of recovering their dues from the borrower on payment of such fees or charges as may be mutually agreed upon between the parties;

(b) act as a manager referred to in clause (c) of sub-section (4) of section 13 on such fee as may be mutually agreed upon between the parties;

(c) act as receiver if appointed by any court or tribunal:

Provided that no securitisation company or reconstruction company shall act as a manager if acting as such gives rise to any pecuniary liability.

(2) Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (1), no securitisation company or reconstruction company which has been granted a certificate of registration under sub-section (4) of section 3, shall commence or carry on, without prior approval of the Reserve Bank, any business other than that of securitisation or asset reconstruction :

Provided that a securitisation company or reconstruction company which is carrying on, on or before the commencement of this Act, any business other than the business of securitisation or asset reconstruction or business referred to in sub-section (1), shall cease to carry on any such business within one year from the date of commencement of this Act.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, “securitisation company” or “reconstruction company” does not include its subsidiary.

Section 11. Resolution of disputes

 

Where any dispute relating to securitisation or reconstruction or nonpayment of any amount due including interest arises amongst any of the parties, namely, the bank or financial institution or a securitization company or reconstruction company or qualified institutional buyer, such dispute shall be settled by conciliation or arbitration as provided in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 (26 of 1996), as if the parties to the dispute have consented in writing for determination of such dispute by conciliation or arbitration and the provisions of that Act shall apply accordingly.

Section 12. Power of Reserve Bank to determine policy and issue directions

 

(1) If the Reserve Bank is satisfied that in the public interest or to regulate financial system of the country to its advantage or to prevent the affairs of any securitisation company or reconstruction company from being conducted in a manner detrimental to the interest of investors or in any manner prejudicial to the interest of such securitisation company or reconstruction company, it is necessary or expedient so to do, it may determine the policy and give directions to all or any securitisation company or reconstruction company in matters relating to income recognition, accounting standards, making provisions for bad and doubtful debts, capital adequacy based on risk weights for assets and also relating to deployment of funds by the securitisation company or reconstruction company, as the case may be, and such company shall be bound to follow the policy so determined and the directions so issued.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the power vested under subsection (1), the Reserve Bank may give directions to any securitisation company or reconstruction company generally or to a class of securitisation companies or reconstruction companies or to any securitisation company or reconstruction company in particular as to—

(a) the type of financial asset of a bank or financial institution which can be acquired and procedure for acquisition of such assets and valuation thereof;

(b) the aggregate value of financial assets which may be acquired by any securitisation company or reconstruction company.

Section 12 A. Power of Reserve Bank to call for statements and information

 

1[Power of Reserve Bank to call for statements and information. The Reserve Bank may at any time direct a securitisation company or reconstruction company to furnish it within such time as may be specified by the Reserve Bank, with such statements and information relating to the business or affairs of such securitisation company or reconstruction company (including any business or affairs with which such company is concerned) as the Reserve Bank may consider necessary or expedient to obtain for the purposes of this Act.]

——————–

1. Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 13. Enforcement of security interest

 

(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 69 or section 69A of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (4 of 1882), any security interest created in favour of any secured creditor may be enforced, without the intervention of the court or tribunal, by such creditor in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

(2) Where any borrower, who is under a liability to a secured creditor under a security agreement, makes any default in repayment of secured debt or any instalment thereof, and his account in respect of such debt is classified by the secured creditor as non-performing asset, then, the secured creditor may require the borrower by notice in writing to discharge in full his liabilities to the secured creditor within sixty days from the date of notice failing which the secured creditor shall be entitled to exercise all or any of the rights under sub-section (4).

(3) The notice referred to in sub-section (2) shall give details of the amount payable by the borrower and the secured assets intended to be enforced by the secured creditor in the event of non-payment of secured debts by the borrower.

1[(3-A) If, on receipt of the notice under sub-section (2), the borrower makes any representation or raises any objection, the secured creditor shall consider such representation or objection and if the secured creditor comes to the conclusion that such representation or objection is not acceptable or tenable, he shall communicate within one week of receipt of such representation or objection the reasons for non-acceptance of the representation or objection to the borrower:

Provided that the reasons so communicated or the likely action of the secured creditor at the stage of communication of reasons shall not confer any right upon the borrower to prefer an application to the Debts Recovery Tribunal under Section 17 or the Court of District Judge under Section 17-A.]

(4) In case the borrower fails to discharge his liability in full within the period specified in sub-section (2), the secured creditor may take recourse to one or more of the following measures to recover his secured debt, namely :—

(a) take possession of the secured assets of the borrower including the right to transfer by way of lease, assignment or sale for realising the secured asset;

2[(b) take over the management of the business of the borrower including the right to transfer by way of lease, assignment or sale for realising the secured asset :

Provided that the right to transfer by way of lease, assignment or sale shall be exercised only where the substantial part of the business of the borrower is held as security for the debt;

Provided further that where the management of whole of the business or part of the business is severable, the secured creditor shall take over the management of such business of the borrower which is relatable to the security for the debt;]

(c) appoint any person (hereafter referred to as the manager), to manage the secured assets the possession of which has been taken over by the secured creditor;

(d) require at any time by notice in writing, any person who has acquired any of the secured assets from the borrower and from whom any money is due or may become due to the borrower, to pay the secured creditor, so much of the money as is sufficient to pay the secured debt.

(5) Any payment made by any person referred to in clause (d) of subsection (4) to the secured creditor shall give such person a valid discharge as if he has made payment to the borrower.

(6) Any transfer of secured asset after taking possession thereof or take over of management under sub-section (4), by the secured creditor or by the manager on behalf of the secured creditor shall vest in the transferee all rights in, or in relation to, the secured asset transferred as if the transfer had been made by the owner of such secured asset.

(7) Where any action has been taken against a borrower under the provisions of sub-section (4), all costs, charges and expenses which, in the opinion of the secured creditor, have been properly incurred by him or any expenses incidental thereto, shall be recoverable from the borrower and the money which is received by the secured creditor shall, in the absence of any contract to the contrary, be held by him in trust, to be applied, firstly, in payment of such costs, charges and expenses and secondly, in discharge of the dues of the secured creditor and the residue of the money so received shall be paid to the person entitled thereto in accordance with his rights and interests.

(8) If the dues of the secured creditor together with all costs, charges and expenses incurred by him are tendered to the secured creditor at any time before the date fixed for sale or transfer, the secured asset shall not be sold or transferred by the secured creditor, and no further step shall be taken by him for transfer or sale of that secured asset.

(9) In the case of financing of a financial asset by more than one secured creditors or joint financing of a financial asset by secured creditors, no secured creditor shall be entitled to exercise any or all of the rights conferred on him under or pursuant to sub-section (4) unless exercise of such right is agreed upon by the secured creditors representing not less than three-fourth in value of the amount outstanding as on a record date and such action shall be binding on all the secured creditors :

Provided that in the case of a company in liquidation, the amount realised from the sale of secured assets shall be distributed in accordance with the provisions of section 529A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956):

Provided further that in the case of a company being wound up on or after the commencement of this Act, the secured creditor of such company, who opts to realise his security instead of relinquishing his security and proving his debt under proviso to sub-section (1) of section 529 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), may retain the sale proceeds of his secured assets after depositing the workmen’s dues with the liquidator in accordance with the provisions of section 529A of that Act:

Provided also that the liquidator referred to in the second proviso shall intimate the secured creditor the workmen’s dues in accordance with the provisions of section 529A of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956) and in case such workmen’s dues cannot be ascertained, the liquidator shall intimate the estimated amount of workmen’s dues under that section to the secured creditor and in such case the secured creditor may retain the sale proceeds of the secured assets after depositing the amount of such estimated dues with the liquidator :

Provided also that in case the secured creditor deposits the estimated amount of workmen’s dues, such creditor shall be liable to pay the balance of the workmen’s dues or entitled to receive the excess amount, if any, deposited by the secured creditor with the liquidator :

Provided also that the secured creditor shall furnish an undertaking to the liquidator to pay the balance of the workmen’s dues, if any.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this sub-section,—

(a) “record date” means the date agreed upon by the secured creditors representing not less than three-fourth in value of the amount outstanding on such date; (b) “amount outstanding” shall include principal, interest and any other dues payable by the borrower to the secured creditor in respect of secured asset as per the books of account of the secured creditor.

(10) Where dues of the secured creditor are not fully satisfied with the sale proceeds of the secured assets, the secured creditor may file an application in the form and manner as may be prescribed to the Debts Recovery Tribunal having jurisdiction or a competent court, as the case may be, for recovery of the balance amount from the borrower.

(11) Without prejudice to the rights conferred on the secured creditor under or by this section, the secured creditor shall be entitled to proceed against the guarantors or sell the pledged assets without first taking any of the measures specified in clauses (a) to (d) of sub-section (4) in relation to the secured assets under this Act.

(12) The rights of a secured creditor under this Act may be exercised by one or more of his officers authorised in this behalf in such manner as may be prescribed.

(13) No borrower shall, after receipt of notice referred to in sub-section (2), transfer by way of sale, lease or otherwise (other than in the ordinary course of his business) any of his secured assets referred to in the notice, without prior written consent of the secured creditor.

——————–

1. Sub Section (3-A) Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

2. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 14. Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or District Magistrate to assist secured creditor in taking possession of secured asset

 

(1) Where the possession of any secured asset is required to be taken by the secured creditor or if any of the secured asset is required to be sold or transferred by the secured creditor under the provisions of this Act, the secured creditor may, for the purpose of taking possession or control of any such secured asset, request, in writing, the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or the District Magistrate within whose jurisdiction any such secured asset or other documents relating thereto may be situated or found, to take possession thereof, and the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or, as the case may be, the District Magistrate shall, on such request being made to him—

(a) take possession of such asset and documents relating thereto; and

(b) forward such asset and documents to the secured creditor.

(2) For the purpose of securing compliance with the provisions of subsection (1), the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or the District Magistrate may take or cause to be taken such steps and use, or cause to be used, such force, as may, in his opinion, be necessary.

(3) No act of the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate or the District Magistrate done in pursuance of this section shall be called in question in any court or before any authority.

Section 15. Manner and effect of take over of management

 

(1) 1[When the management of business of a borrower is taken over by a securitisation company or reconstruction company under clause (a) of Section 9 or, as the case may be, by a secured creditor under clause (b) of subsection (4) of Section 13] , the secured creditor may, by publishing a notice in a newspaper published in English language and in a newspaper published in an Indian language in circulation in the place where the principal office of the borrower is situated, appoint as many persons as it thinks fit—

(a) in a case in which the borrower is a company as defined in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), to be the directors of that borrower in accordance with the provisions of that Act; or

(b) in any other case, to be the administrator of the business of the borrower.

(2) On publication of a notice under sub-section (1),—

(a) in any case where the borrower is a company as defined in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), all persons holding office as directors of the company and in any other case, all persons holding any office having power of superintendence, direction and control of the business of the borrower immediately before the publication of the notice under sub-section (1), shall be deemed to have vacated their offices as such;

(b} any contract of management between the borrower and any director or manager thereof holding office as such immediately before publication of the notice under sub-section (1), shall be deemed to be terminated;

(c) the directors or the administrators appointed under this section shall take such steps as may be necessary to take into their custody or under their control all the property, effects and actionable claims to which the business of the borrower is, or appears to be, entitled and all the property and effects of the business of the borrower shall be deemed to be in the custody of the directors or administrators, as the case may be, as from the date of the publication of the notice;

(d) the directors appointed under this section shall, for all purposes, be the directors of the company of the borrower and such directors or as the case may be, the administrators appointed under this section, shall alone be entitled to exercise all the powers of the directors or as the case may be, of the persons exercising powers of superintendence, direction and control, of the business of the borrower whether such powers are derived from the memorandum or articles of association of the company of the borrower or from any other source whatsoever.

(3) Where the management of the business of a borrower, being a company as defined in the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), is taken over by the secured creditor, then, notwithstanding anything contained in the said Act or in the memorandum or articles of association of such borrower,—

(a) it shall not be lawful for the shareholders of such company or any other person to nominate or appoint any person to be a director of the company;

(b) no resolution passed at any meeting of the shareholders of such company shall be given effect to unless approved by the secured creditor;

(c) no proceeding for the winding up of such company or for the appointment of a receiver in respect thereof shall lie in any court, except with the consent of the secured creditor.

(4) Where the management of the business of a borrower had been taken over by the secured creditor, the secured creditor shall, on realisation of his debt in full, restore the management of the business of the borrower to him.

——————–

1. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 16. No compensation to directors for loss of office

 

(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any contract or in any other law for the time being in force, no managing director or any other director or a manager or any person in charge of management of the business of the borrower shall be entitled to any compensation for the loss of office or for the premature termination under this Act of any contract of management entered into by him with the borrower.

(2) Nothing contained in sub-section (1) shall affect the right of any such managing director or any other director or manager or any such person in charge of management to recover from the business of the borrower, moneys recoverable otherwise than by way of such compensation.

Section 17. Right to appeal

 

(1) Any person (including borrower), aggrieved by any of the measures referred to in sub-section (4) of section 13 taken by the secured creditor or his authorised officer under this Chapter, 1[may make an aplication along with such fee as may be prescribed] to the Debts Recovery Tribunal having jurisdiction in the matter within forty-five days from the date on which such measures had been taken.

2[Provided that different fees may be prescribed for making the application by the borrower and the person other than the borrower.

Explanation.-For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the communication of the reasons to the borrower by the secured creditor for not having accepted his representation or objection or the likely action of the secured creditor at the stage of communication of reasons to the borrower shall not entitle the person (including borrower) to make an application to the Debts Recovery Tribunal under this sub-section.]

3[(2) The Debts Recovery Tribunal shall consider whether any of the measures referred to in sub-section (4) of Section 13 taken by the secured creditor for enforcement of security are in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder.

(3) If, the Debts Recovery Tribunal, after examining the facts and circumstances of the case and evidence produced by the parties, comes to the conclusion that any of the measures referred to in sub-section (4) of Section 13, taken by the secured creditor are not in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder, and require restoration of the management of the business to the borrower or restoration of possession of the secured assets to the borrower, it may by order, declare the recourse to any one or more measures referred to in sub-section (4) of Section 13 taken by the secured creditors as invalid and restore the possession of the secured assets to the borrower or restore the management of the business to the borrower, as the case may be, and pass such order as it may consider appropriate and necessary in relation to any of the recourse taken by the secured creditor under sub-section (4) of Section 13].

(4) If, the Debts Recovery Tribunal declares the recourse taken by a secured creditor under sub-section (4) of Section 13, is in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder, then, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, the secured creditor shall be entitled to take recourse to one or more of the measures specified under sub-section (4) of Section 13 to recover his secured debt.

(5) Any application made under sub-section (1) shall be dealt with by the Debts Recovery Tribunal as expeditiously as possible and disposed of within sixty days from the date of such application :

Provided that the Debts Recovery Tribunal may, from time to time, extend the said period for reasons to be recorded in writing, so, however, that the total period of pendency of the application with the Debts Recovery Tribunal, shall not exceed four months from the date of making of such application made under sub-section (1).

(6) If the application is not disposed of by the Debts Recovery Tribunal within the period of four months as specified in sub-section (5), any part to the application may make an application, in such form as may be prescribed, to the Appellate Tribunal for directing the Debts Recovery Tribunal for expeditious disposal of the application pending before the Debts Recovery Tribunal and the Appellate Tribunal may, on such application, make an order for expeditious disposal of the pending application by the Debts Recovery Tribunal.

(7) Save as otherwise provided in this Act, the Debts Recovery Tribunal ;v shall, as far as may be, dispose of the application in accordance with the provisions of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993) and the rules made thereunder.

——————–

1. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 21-6-2002.

2. Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 21-6-2002.

3. Sub Section (2) and (3) subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 17 A. Making of application to Court of District Judge in certain cases

 

1[Making of application to Court of District Judge in certain cases. In the case of a borrower residing in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the application under Section 17 shall be made to the Court of District Judge in that State having jurisdiction over the borrower which shall pass an order on such application.

Explanation.-For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that the communication of the reasons to the borrower by the secured creditor for not having accepted his representation or objection or the likely action of the secured creditor at the stage of communication of reasons shall not entitle the person (including borrower) to make an application to the Court of District Judge under this section].

——————–

1. New Section 17-A Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 18. Appeal to Appellate Tribunal

 

(1) Any person aggrieved, by any order made by the Debts Recovery Tribunal 1[under section 17 may prefer an appeal along with such fee as may be prescribed] to the Appellate Tribunal within thirty days from the date of receipt of the order of Debts Recovery Tribunal.

2[Provided that different fees may be prescribed for filing an appeal by the borrower or by the person other than the borrower.]

2[Provided further that no appeal shall be entertained unless the borrower has deposited with the Appellate Tribunal fifty per cent of the amount of debt due from him, as claimed by the secured creditors or determined by the Debts Recovery Tribunal, whichever is less :

Provided also that the Appellate Tribunal may, for the reasons to be recorded in writing, reduce the amount to not less than twenty-five per cent of debt referred to in the second proviso].

(2) Save as otherwise provided in this Act, the Appellate Tribunal shall, as far as may be, dispose of the appeal in accordance with the provisions of the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993) and rules made thereunder.

——————–

1. The words “under Section 17 may prefer an appeal” Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 21-6-2002.

2. Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 21-6-2002.

Section 18 A. Validation of fees levied

 

1[Validation of fees levied. Any fee levied and collected for preferring, before the commencement of the Enforcement of Security Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws (Amendment) Act, 2004, an appeal to the Debts Recovery Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal under this Act, shall be deemed always to have been levied and collected in accordance with law as if the amendments made to Sections 17 and 18 of this Act by Sections 10 and 12 of the said Act were in force at all material times].

——————–

1. Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 18 B. Appeal to High Court in certain cases

 

1[Appeal to High Court in certain cases. Any borrower residing in the State of Jamrnu and Kashmir and aggrieved by any order made by the Court of District Judge under Section 17-A may prefer an appeal, to the High Court having jurisdiction over such Court, within thirty days from the date of receipt of the order of the Court of District Judge :

Provided that no appeal shall be preferred unless the borrower has deposited, with the Jammu and Kashmir High Court, fifty per cent of the amount of the debt due from him as claimed by the secured creditor or determined by the Court of District Judge, whichever is less :

Provided further that the High Court may, for the reasons to be recorded in writing, reduce the amount to not less than twenty-five per cent of the debt referred to in the first proviso].

——————–

1. Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 19. Right of borrower to receive compensation and costs in certain cases

 

1[Right of borrower to receive compensation and costs in certain cases. If the Debts Recovery Tribunal or the Court of District Judge, on an application made under Section 17 or Section 17-A or the Appellate Tribunal or the High Court on an appeal preferred under Section 18 or Section 18-A, holds that the possession of secured assets by the secured creditor is not in accordance with the provisions of this Act and rules made thereunder and directs the secured creditors to return such secured assets to the concerned borrowers, such borrower shall be entitled to the payment of such compensation and costs as may be determined by such Tribunal or Court of District Judge or Appellate Tribunal or the High Court referred to in Section 18-B.

——————–

1. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 20. Central Registry

 

(1) The Central Government may, by notification, set-up or cause to be set-up from such date as it may specify in such notification, a registry to be known as the Central Registry with its own seal for the purposes of registration of transaction of securitisation and reconstruction of financial assets and creation of security interest under this Act.

(2) The head office of the Central Registry shall be at such place as the Central Government may specify and for the purpose of facilitating registration of transactions referred to in sub-section (1), there may be established at such other places as the Central Government may think fit, branch offices of the Central Registry.

(3) The Central Government may, by notification, define the territorial limits within which an office of the Central Registry may exercise its functions.

(4) The provisions of this Act pertaining to the Central Registry shall be in addition to and not in derogation of any of the provisions contained in the Registration Act, 1908 (16 of 1908), the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 (44 of 1958), the Patents Act, 1970 (39 of 1970), the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (59 of 1988) and the Designs Act, 2000 (16 of 2000) or any other law requiring registration of charges and shall not affect the priority of charges or validity thereof under those Acts or laws.

Section 21. Central Registrar

 

(1) The Central Government may, by notification, appoint a person for the purpose of registration of transactions relating to securitisation, reconstruction of financial assets and security interest created over properties, to be known as the Central Registrar.

(2) The Central Government may appoint such other officers with such designations as it thinks fit for the purpose of discharging under the superintendence and direction of the Central Registrar, such functions of the Central Registrar under this Act as he may, from time to time, authorise them to discharge.

Section 22. Register of securitisation, reconstruction and security interest transactions

 

(1) For the purposes of this Act, a record called the Central Register shall be kept at the head office of the Central Registry for entering the particulars of the transactions relating to—

(a) securitisation of financial assets;

(b) reconstruction of financial assets; and

(c) creation of security interest.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), it shall be lawful for the Central Registrar to keep the records wholly or partly in computer, floppies, diskettes or in any other electronic form subject to such safeguards as may be prescribed.

(3) Where such register is maintained wholly or partly in computer, floppies, diskettes or in any other electronic form, under sub-section (2), any reference in this Act to entry in the Central Register shall be construed as a reference to any entry as maintained in computer or in any other electronic form.

(4) The register shall be kept under the control and management of the Central Registrar.

Section 23. Filing of transactions of securitisation, reconstruction and creation of security interest

 

The particulars of every transaction of securitisation, asset reconstruction or creation of security interest shall be filed, with the Central Registrar in the manner and on payment of such fee as may be prescribed, within thirty days after the date of such transaction or creation of security, by the securitisation company or reconstruction company or the secured creditor, as the case may be:

Provided that the Central Registrar may allow the filing of the particulars of such transaction or creation of security interest within thirty days next following the expiry of the said period of thirty days on payment of such additional fee not exceeding ten times the amount of such fee.

Section 24. Modification of security interest registered under this Act

 

Whenever the terms or conditions, or the extent or operation, of any security interest registered under this Chapter, are, or is, modified, it shall be the duty of the securitisation company or the reconstruction company or the secured creditor, as the case may be, to send to the Central Registrar, the particulars of such modification, and the provisions of this Chapter as to registration of a security interest shall apply to such modification of such security interest.

Section 25. Securitisation company or reconstruction company or secured creditor to report satisfaction of security interest

 

(1) The securitisation company or the reconstruction company or the secured creditor as the case may be, shall give intimation to the Central Registrar of the payment or satisfaction in full, of any security interest relating to the securitisation company or the reconstruction company or the secured creditor and requiring registration under this Chapter, within thirty days from the date of such payment or satisfaction.

1[(1-A) On receipt of intimation under sub-section (1), the Central Registrar shall order that a memorandum of satisfaction shall be entered in the Central Register].

(2) 2[If the concerned borrower gives an intimation to the Central Registrar for not recording the payment or satisfaction referred to in sub-section (1), the Central Registrar shall on receipt of such intimation], cause a notice to be sent to the securitisation company or reconstruction company or the secured creditor calling upon it to show cause within a time not exceeding fourteen days specified in such notice, as to why payment or satisfaction should not be recorded as intimated to the Central Registrar.

(3) If no cause is shown, the Central Registrar shall order that a memorandum of satisfaction shall be entered in the Central Register.

(4) If cause is shown, the Central Registrar shall record a note to that effect in the Central Register, and shall inform the borrower that he has done so.

——————–

1. Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

2. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 26. Right to inspect particulars of securitisation, reconstruction and security interest transactions

 

(1) The particulars of securitisation or reconstruction or security interest entered in the Central Register of such transactions kept under section 22 shall be open during the business hours for inspection by any person on payment of such fee as may be prescribed.

(2) The Central Register, referred to in sub-section (1) maintained in electronic form, shall also be open during the business hours for the inspection by any person through electronic media on payment of such fee as may be prescribed.

Section 27. Penalties

 

If a default is made—

(a) in filing under section 23, the particulars of every transaction of an} 1 securitisation or asset reconstruction or security interest created by a securitisation company or reconstruction company or secured creditor; or

(b) in sending under section 24, the particulars of the modification referred to in that section; or

(c) in giving intimation under section 25,

every company and every officer of the company or the secured creditor and every officer of the secured creditor who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which the default continues.

Section 28. Penalties for non-compliance of direction of Reserve Bank

 

If any securitisation company or reconstruction company fails to comply with any direction issued by the Reserve Bank 1[under section 12 or Section 12-A], such company and every officer of the company who is in default, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to five lakh rupees and in the case of a continuing offence, with an additional fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees for every day during which the default continues.

——————–

1. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 29. Offences

 

If any person contravenes or attempts to contravene or abets the contravention of the provisions of this Act or of any rules made thereunder, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

Section 30. Cognizance of offence

 

No court inferior to that of a Metropolitan Magistrate or a Judicial Magistrate of the First Class shall try any offence punishable under this Act.

Section 31. Provisions of this Act not to apply in certain cases

 

The provisions of this Act shall not apply to—

(a) a lien on any goods, money or security given by or under the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872) or the Sale of Goods Act, 1930 (3 of 1930) or any other law for the time being in force;

(b) a pledge of movables within the meaning of section 172 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872);

(c) creation of any security in any aircraft as defined in clause (7) of section 2 of the Aircraft Act, 1934 (24 of 1934);

(d) creation of security interest in any vessel as defined in clause (55) of section 3 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958 (44 of 1958);

(e) any conditional sale, hire-purchase or lease or any other contract in which no security interest has been created;

(f) any rights of unpaid seller under section 47 of the Sale of Goods Act, i 1930 (3 of 1930);

(g) 1[any properties not liable to attachment (excluding the properties specifically charged with the debt recoverable under this act)] or sale under the first proviso to sub-section (1) of section 60 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908);

(h) any security interest for securing repayment of any financial asset not exceeding one lakh rupees;

(t) any security interest created in agricultural land;

(j) any case in which the amount due is less than twenty per cent of the principal amount and interest thereon.

——————–

1. Subs. by Act No. 30 of 2004 we.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 32. Protection of action taken in good faith

 

No suit, prosecution or other legal proceedings shall lie against any secured creditor or any of his officers or manager exercising any of the rights of the secured creditor or borrower for anything done or omitted to be done in good faith under this Act.

Section 33. Offences by companies

 

(1) Where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company, every person who at the time the offence was committed was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company, for the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly:

Provided that nothing contained in this sub-section shall render any such person liable to any punishment provided in this Act, if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he had exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence.

(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that the offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall also be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Explanation—For the purposes of this section,—

(a) “company” means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals; and

(b) “director”, in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.

Section 34. Civil Court not to have jurisdiction

 

No civil court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any suit or proceeding in respect of any matter which a Debts Recovery Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal is empowered by or under this Act to determine and no injunction shall be granted by any court or other authority in respect of any action taken or to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Act or under the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993).

Section 35. The provisions of this Act to override other laws

 

The provisions of this Act shall have effect, notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith contained in any other law for the time being in force or any instrument having effect by virtue of any such law.

Section 36. Limitation

 

No secured creditor shall be entitled to take all or any of the measures under sub-section (4) of section 13, unless his claim in respect of the financial asset is made within the period of limitation prescribed under the Limitation Act, 1963 (36 of 1963).

Section 37. Application of other laws not barred

 

The provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956), the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (42 of 1956), the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (15 of 1992), the Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (51 of 1993) or any other law for the time being in force.

Section 38. Power of Central Government to make rules

 

(1) The Central Government may, by notification and in the Electronic Gazette as defined in clause (s) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000), make rules for carrying out the provisions of this Act.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters, namely :—

(a) the form and manner in which an application may be filed under subsection (10) of section 13;

(b) the manner in which the rights of a secured creditor may be exercised by one or more of his officers under sub-section (12) of section 13;

1[(ba) the fee for making an application to the Debts. Recovery Tribunal under subsection (1) of Section 17;

(bb) the form of making an application to the Appellate Tribunal under subsection (6) of Section 17;

(bc) the fee for preferring an appeal to the Appellate Tribunal under sub-section (1) of Section 18];

(c) the safeguards subject to which the records may be kept under subsection (2) of section 22;

(d) the manner in which the particulars of every transaction of securitisation shall be filed under section 23 and fee for filing such transaction;

(e) the fee for inspecting the particulars of transactions kept under section 22 and entered in the Central Register under sub-section (1) of section 26;

(f) the fee for inspecting the Central Register maintained in electronic form under sub-section (2) of section 26;

(g) any other matter which is required to be, or may be, prescribed, in respect of which provision is to be, or may be, made by rules.

(3) Every rule made under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.

——————–

1. Inserted by Act No. 30 of 2004 w.e.f. 29-12-2004.

Section 39. Certain provisions of this Act to apply after Central Registry is set up or cause to be set up

 

The provisions of sub-sections (2), (3) and (4) of section 20 and sections 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27 shall apply after the Central Registry is set up or cause to be set up under sub-section (1) of section 20.

Section 40. Power to remove difficulties

 

(1) If any difficulty arises in giving effect to the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may, by order published in the Official Gazette, make such provisions not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act as may appear to be necessary for removing the difficulty :

Provided that no order shall be made under this section after the expiry of a period of two years from the commencement of this Act.

(2) Every order made under this section shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament.

Section 41. Amendments to certain enactments

 

The enactments specified in the Schedule shall be amended in the manner specified therein.

Section 42. Repeal and saving

 

(1) The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest (Second) Ordinance, 2002 (Ord. 3 of 2002) is hereby repealed.

(2) Notwithstanding such repeal, any thing done or any action taken under the said Ordinance shall be deemed to have been done or taken under the corresponding provisions of this Act.

Schedule

THE SCHEDULE

(See section 41)

Year

Act No.

Short title

Amendment

1956

1

The Companies Act, 1956.

In section 4A, in sub-section (1), after clause (vi), insert the following : —

 

 

 

“(vii) the securitisation company or the reconstruction company which has obtained a certificate of registration under sub-section (4) of section 3 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002.”.

1956

42

The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956.

In section 2, in clause (h) after sub-clause (ib), insert the following : —

 

 

 

“(ic) security receipt as defined in clause (zg) of section 2 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002.”.

1986

1

The Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985.

In section 15, in sub-section (1), after the proviso, insert the following : —

 

 

 

“Provided further that no reference shall be made to the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction after the commencement of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002, where financial assets have been acquired by any securitisation company or reconstruction company under sub-section (1) of section 5 of that Act :

 

 

 

Provided also that on or after the commencement of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002, where a reference is pending before the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction, such reference shall abate if the secured creditors, representing not less than three-fourth in value of the amount outstanding against financial assistance disbursed to the borrower of such secured creditors, have taken any measures to recover their secured debt under sub-section (4) of section 13 of that Act.”.

 

 

 

Year Act No. Short title Amendment
1956 1 The Companies Act, 1956. In section 4A, in sub-section (1), after clause (vi), insert the following : —
      “(vii) the securitisation company or the reconstruction company which has obtained a certificate of registration under sub-section (4) of section 3 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002.”.
1956 42 The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956. In section 2, in clause (h) after sub-clause (ib), insert the following : —
      “(ic) security receipt as defined in clause (zg) of section 2 of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002.”.
1986 1 The Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985. In section 15, in sub-section (1), after the proviso, insert the following : —
      “Provided further that no reference shall be made to the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction after the commencement of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002, where financial assets have been acquired by any securitisation company or reconstruction company under sub-section (1) of section 5 of that Act :
      Provided also that on or after the commencement of the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002, where a reference is pending before the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction, such reference shall abate if the secured creditors, representing not less than three-fourth in value of the amount outstanding against financial assistance disbursed to the borrower of such secured creditors, have taken any measures to recover their secured debt under sub-section (4) of section 13 of that Act.”.