C.P.C. - ORDER XXII - LI

ORDER XXII

  DEATH, MARRIAGE AND INSOLVENCY OR PARTIES

 1 . No abatement by party's death if right to sue survives— The death of a plaintiff or defendant shall not cause the suit to abate if the right to sue survives.

 2 . Procedure where one of several plaintiffs or defendants dies and right to sue survives— Where there are more plaintiffs or defendants than one, and any of them dies, and where the right to sue survives to the surviving plaintiff or plaintiffs alone, or against the surviving defendant or defendants alone, the Court shall cause an entry to the effect to be made on the record, and the suit shall proceed at the instance of the surviving plaintiff or plaintiffs, or against the surving defendant or defendants.

 3 . Procedure in case of death of one of several plaintiffs or of sole plaintiff— (1) Where one of two or more plaintiffs dies and the right to sue does not survive to the surviving plaintiff or plaintiffs alone, or a sole plaintiff or sole surviving plaintiff dies and the right to the sue survives, the Court, on an application made in that behalf, shall cause the legal representative of the deceased plaintiff to be made a party and shall proceed with the suit.

(2) Where within the time limited by law no application is made under sub-rule (1), the suit shall abate so far as the deceased plaintiff is concerned, and, on the application of the defendant, the Court may award to him the costs which he may have incurred in defending the suit, to be recovered from the estate of the deceased plaintiff.

 4 . Procedure in case of death of one of several defendants or of sole defendant— (1) Where one of two or more defendants dies and the right to sue does not survive against the surviving defendant or defendants alone, or a sole defendant or sole surviving defendant dies and the right to sue survives, the Court, on an application made in that behalf, shall cause the legal representative of the deceased defendant to be made a party and shall proceed with the suit.

(2) Any person so made a party may make any defence appropriate to his character as legal representative of the deceased defendant.

(3) Where within the time limited by law no application is made under sub-rule (1), the suit shall abate as against the deceased defendant.

[295] [(4) The Court whenever it thinks fit, may exempt the plaintiff from the necessity of substituting the legal representatives of any such defendant who has failed to file a written statement or who, having filed it, has failed to appear and contest the suit at the hearing; and judgment may, in such case, be pronounced against the said defendant not withstanding the death of such defendant and shall have the same force and effect as if it has been pronounced before death took place.

(5) Where—

(a) the plaintiff was ignorant of the death of a defendant, and could not, for that reason, make an application for the substitution of the legal representative of the defendant under this rule within the period specified in the Limitation Act, 1963 (36 of 1963)  and the suit has, in consequence, abated, and

(b) the plaintiff applies after the expiry of the period specified therefor in the Limitation Act, 1963 (36 of 1963), for setting aside the abatement and also for the admission of that application under section 5 of that Act on the ground that he had, by reason of such ignorance, sufficient cause for not making the application within the period specified in the said Act,

 the Court shall, in considering the application under the said section 5, have due regard to the fact of such ignorance, if proved.]

 [296][4A . Procedure where there is no legal representative— (1) If, in any suit, it shall appear to the Court that any party who has died during the pendency of the suit has no legal representative, the Court may, on the application of any party to the suit, proceed in the absence of a person representing the estate of the deceased person, or may by order appoint the Administrator-General, or an officer of the Court or such other person as it thinks fit to represent the estate of the deceased person for the purpose of the suit; and any judgment or order subsequently given or made in the suit shall bind the estate of the deceased person to the same extent as he would have been bound if a personal representative of the deceased person had been a party to the suit.

(2) Before making an order under this rule, the Court—

(a) may require notice of the application for the order to be given to such (if any) of the persons having an interest in the estate of the deceased person as it thinks fit; and

(b) shall ascertain that the person proposed to be appointed to represent the estate of the deceased person is willing to be so appointed and has no interest adverse to that of the deceased person.]

 5 . Determination of question as to legal representative— Where a question arises as to whether any person is or is not the legal representative of a deceased plaintiff or a deceased defendant, such question shall be determined by the Court:

[297][Provided that where such question arises before an Appellate Court, that Court may, before determining the question, direct any subordinate Court to try the question and to return the records together with evidence, if any, recorded at such trial, its findings and reasons therefor, and the Appellate Court may take the same into consideration in determining the question.]

 6 . No abatement by reason of death after hearing— Nothwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing rules, whether the cause of action survives or not, there shall be no abatement by reason of the death of either party between the conclusion of the hearing and the pronouncing of the judgment, but judgment may in such case be pronounced notwithstanding the death and shall have the same force and effect as if it had been pronounced before the death took place.

 7 . Suit not abated by marriage of female party— (1) The marriage of a female plaintiff or defendant shall not cause the suit to abate, but the suit may notwithstanding be proceeded with to judgment, and, where the decree is against a female defendant, it may be executed against her alone.

(2) Where the husband is by law liable for the debts of his wife, the decree may, with the permission of the Court, be executed against the husband also; and in case of judgment for the wife, execution of the decree may, with such permission, be issued upon the application of the husband, where the husband is by law entitled to the subject matter of the decree.

 8 . When plaintiffs insolvency bars suit— (1) The insolvency of a plaintiff in any suit which the assignee or receiver might maintain for the benefit of his creditors, shall not cause the suit to abate, unless such assignee or receiver declines to continue the suit or (unless for any special reason the Court otherwise directs) to give security for the costs thereof within such time as the Court may direct.

(2) Procedure where assignee fails to continue suit, or give security—Where the assignee or receiver neglects or refuses to continue the suit and to give such security within the time so ordered, the defendant may apply for the dismissal of the suit on the ground of the plaintiff's insolvency, and the Court may make an order dismissing the suit and awarding to the defendant the costs which he has insured in defending the same to be proved as a debt against the plaintiff's estate.

 9 . Effect of abatement or dismissal— (1) Where a suit abates or is dismissed under this Order, no fresh suit shall be brought on the same cause of action.

(2) The plaintiff or the person claiming to be the legal representative of a deceased plaintiff or the assignee or the receiver in the case of an insolvent plaintiff may apply for an order to set aside the abatement or dismissal; and if it is proved that he was prevented by any sufficient cause from continuing the suit, the Court shall set aside the abatement or dismissal upon such terms as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit.

(3) The provisions of section 5 of the [298][Indian Limitation Act, 1877 (15 of 1877)] shall apply to applications under sub-rule (2).

[299][Explanation—Nothing in this rule shall be construed as barring, in any later suit, a defence based on the facts which constituted the cause of action in the suit which had abated or had been dismissed under this Order]

 10 . Procedure in case of assignment before final order in suit— (1) In other cases of an assignment, creation or devolution of any interest during the pendency of a suit, may, by leave of the Court, be continued by or against the person to or upon whom such interest has come or devolved.

(2) The attachment of a decree pending an appeal therefrom shall be deemed to be an interest entitling the person who procured such attachment to the benefit of sub-rule (1).

 [300][10A . Duty or pleader to communicate to Court death of a party— Wherever a pleader appearing for a party to the suit comes to know of the death of that party, he shall inform the Court about it, and the Court shall there upon give notice of such death to the other party, and, for this purpose, the contract between the pleader and the deceased party shall be deemed to subsist.]

 11 . Application of Order to appeals— In the application of this Order to appeals, so far as may be, the word "plaintiff" shall be held to include an appellant, the word "defendant" a respondent, and the word "suit" an appeal.

 12 . Application of Order to proceedings— Nothing in rules 3, 4 and 8 shall apply to proceedings in executive of a decree or order.

 ORDER XXIII

  WITHDRAWAL AND ADJUSTMENT OF SUITS

 [301][1 . Withdrawal of suit or abandonment of part of claim— (1) At any time after the institution of a suit, the plaintiff may as against all or any of the defendants abandon his suit or abandon a part of his claim:

Provided that where the plaintiff is a minor or other person to whom the provisions contained in rules 1 to 14 of Order XXXII extend, neither the suit nor any part of the claim shall be abandoned without the leave of the Court.

(2) An application for leave under the proviso to sub-rule (1) shall be accompanied by an affidavit of the next friend and also, if the minor or such other person is represented by a pleader, by a certificate of the pleader to the effect that the abandonment proposed is, in his opinion, for the benefit of the minor or such other persons.

(3) Where the Court is satisfied,—

(a) that a suit must fail by reason of some formal defect, or

(b) that there are sufficient grounds for allowing the plaintiff to institute a fresh suit for the subject-matter of a suit or part of a claim,

 it may, on such terms as it thinks fit, grant the plaintiff permission to withdraw from such suit or such part of the claim with liberty to institute a fresh suit in respect of the subject- matter of such suit or such part of the claim.

(4) Where the plaintiff—

(a) abandons any suit or part of claim under sub-rule (1), or

(b) withdraws from a suit or part of a claim without the permission referred to in sub-rule (3),

 he shall be liable for such costs as the Court may award and shall be preclude from instituting any fresh suit in respect of such subject-matter or such part of the claim.

(5) Nothing in this rule shall be deemed to authorise the Court to permit one of several plaintiffs to abandon a suit or part of a claim under sub-rule (1), or to withdraw, under sub-rule (3), any suit or part of  a claim, without the consent of the other plaintiffs.]

 [302][1A . When transposition of defendants as plaintiffs may be permitted— Where a suit is withdrawn or abandoned by a plaintiff under rule 1, and a defendant applies to be transposed as a plaintiff under rule 10 of Order I the Court shall, in considering such application, have due regard to the question whether the applicant has a substantial question to be decided as against any of the other defendants.]

 2 . Limitation law not affected by first suit— In any fresh suit instituted on permission granted under the last preceding rule, the plaintiff shall be bound by the law of limitation in the same manner as if the first suit had not been instituted.

[303][in writing and signed by the parties] or where the defendant satisfied the plaintiff in respect of the whole or any part of the subject-matter of the suit, the Court shall order such agreement, compromise satisfaction to be recorded, and shall pass a decree is accordance therewith [304][so far as it relates to the parties to the suit, whether or not the subject-matter of the agreement, compromise or satisfaction is the same as the subject-matter of the suit:]

[305] [Provided that where it is alleged by one party and denied by the other that an adjustment or satisfaction has been arrived at, the Court shall decide the question; but not adjournment shall be granted for the purpose of deciding the question, unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded, thinks fit to grant such adjournment.]

[306] [Explanation—An agreement or compromise which is void or voidable under the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872), shall not be deemed to be lawful within the meaning of this rule;]

[307][3A . Bar to suit— No suit shall lie to set aside a decree on the ground that the compromise on which the decree is based was not lawful.

 3B . No agreement or compromise to be entered in a representative suit without leave of Court— (1) no agreement or compromise in a representative suit shall be entered into without the leave of the Court expressly recorded in the proceedings; and any such agreement or compromise entered into without the leave of the Court so recorded shall be void.

(2) Before granting such leave, the Court shall give notice in such manner as it may think fit to such persons as may appear to it to be interested in the suit.

Explanation.—In this rule, "representative suit" means,—

(a) a suit under section 91 or section 92,

(b) a suit under rule 8 of Order I,

(c) a suit in which the manager of an undivided Hindu family sues or is sued as representing the other members of the family,

(d) any other suit in which the decree passed may, by virtue of the provisions  of this Code or of any other law for the time being in force, bind any person who is not named as party to the suit.]

 4 . Proceeding in execution of decrees not affected— Nothing in this Order shall apply to any proceedings in execution of a decree or order.

 ORDER XXIV

  PAYMENT INTO COURT

 1 . Deposit by defendant of amount in satisfaction of claim— The defendant in any suit to recover a debt or damage may, at any stage of the suit, deposit in Court such sum of money as he considers a satisfaction in full  of the claim.

 2 . Notice of deposit— Notice of the deposit shall be given through the Court by the defendant to the plaintiff, and the amount of the deposit shall (unless the Court otherwise directs) be paid to the plaintiff on his application.

 3 . Interest on deposit not allowed to plaintiff after notice— No interest shall be allowed to the plaintiff on any sum deposited by the defendant from the date of the receipt of such notice, whether the sum deposited is in full of the claim or falls short thereof.

 4 . Procedure where plaintiff accepts deposit as satisfaction in part— (1) Where the plaintiff accepts such amount as satisfaction in part only of his claim he may prosecute suit for the balance; and, if the Court decides that the deposit by the defendant was a full satisfaction of the plaintiff's claim, the plaintiff shall pay the costs of the suit incurred after the deposit and the costs incurred previous thereto, so far as they were caused by excess in the plaintiff's claim.

(2) Procedure where he accepts it as satisfaction in full—Where the plaintiff accepts such amount as satisfaction in full of his claim he shall present to the Court a statement to that effect, and such statement shall be filed and the Court shall pronounce judgment accordingly; and, in directing by whom the costs of each party are to be paid, the Court shall consider which of the parties is most to blame for the litigation.

 Illustrations

 (a) A owes B Rs. 100. B sues A for the amount, having made no demand for payment, and having no reason to believe that the delay caused by making a demand would place him at a disadvantage. On the plaint being filed. A pays the money into Court, B accepts it in full satisfaction of his claim, but the Court should not allow him any costs, the litigation being presumably groundless on his part.

 (b) B sues A under the circumstance mentioned in illustration (a). On the plaint being filed, A disputes the claim. Afterwards A pays the money into Court. B accepts it in full satisfaction of his claim. The Court should also give B his cast of suit. A's conduct having shown that the litigation was necessary.

 (c) A owes B Rs. 100, and is willing to pay him that sum without suit. B claims Rs. 150 and sues A for that amount. On the plaint being filed, A pays Rs. 100 into Court and disputes only his liability to pay the remaining Rs. 50. B accepts the Rs. 100 in full satisfaction of his claim. The Court should order him to pay A's costs.

 ORDER XXV

  SECURITY FOR COSTS

 1 . When security for costs may be required from plaintiff— (1) At any stage of a suit, the Court may, either of its own motion or on the application of any defendant, order the plaintiff, for reasons to be recorded to give with in the time fixed by it security for the payment of all costs incurred and likely to be incurred by any defendant:

Provided that such an order shall be made in all cases in which it appears to the Court that a sole plaintiff is, or (when there are more plaintiffs than one) that all the plaintiff are, residing out of India and that such plaintiff does not possess or that no one of such plaintiffs possesses any sufficient immovable property with India other than the property in suit.

(2) Whoever leaves India under such circumstances as to afford reasonable probability that he will not be forthcoming whenever he may be called upon to pay costs shall be deemed to be residing out of India within the meaning of the proviso to sub-rule (1).

 2 . Effect of failure to furnish security— (1) In the event of such security not being furnished within the time fixed, the Court shall make an order dismissing the suit unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs are permitted to withdraw therefrom.

(2) Where a suit is dismissed under this rule, the plaintiff may apply for an order to set the dismissal aside and, if it is proved to the satisfaction of the Court that he was prevented by any sufficient cause from furnishing the security within the time allowed, the Court shall set aside the dismissal upon such terms as to security, costs or otherwise as it thinks fit, and shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit.

(3) The dismissal shall not be set aside unless notice of such application has been served on the defendant.

 ORDER XXVI

  COMMISSIONS

 Commissions to examine witnesses

 1 . Cases in which Court may issue commission to examine witness— Any Court may in any suit issue a commission for the examination on interrogatories or otherwise of any person resident within the local limits of its jurisdiction who is exempted under this Code from attending the Court or who is from sickness or infirmity unable to attend it:

 [308] [Provided that a commission for examination on interrogatories shall not be issued unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded, thinks it necessary so to do.

Explanation—The Court may, for the purpose of this rule, accept a certificate purporting to be signed by a registered medical practitioner as evidence of the sickness or infermity of any person, without calling the medical practitioner as a witness.]

 2 . Order for commission— An order for the issue of a commission for the examination of a witness may be made by the Court either of its own motion or on the application, supported by affidavit or otherwise, of any party to the suit or of the witness to be examined.

 3 . Where witness resides within Court's jurisdiction— A commission for the examination of a person who resides within the local limits of the jurisdiction of the Court issuing the same may be issued to any person whom the Court thinks fit to execute it.

[309][for the examination on interrogatories or otherwise of—]

(a) any person resident beyond the local limits of its jurisdiction;

(b) any person who is about to leave such limits before the date on which he is required to be examined in Court; and

(c) any person in the service of the Government who cannot in the opinion of the Court, attend without detriment to the public service:

[310] [Provided that where, under rule 19 of Order XVI, a person cannot be ordered to attend a Court in person, a commission shall be issued for his examination if his evidence is considered necessary in the interests of justice:

Provided further that a commission for examination of such person on interrogatories shall not be issued unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded, thinks it necessary so to do.]

(2) Such commission may be issued to any Court, not being a High Court, within the local limits of whose jurisdiction such person resides, or to any pleader or other person whom the Court issuing the commission may appoint.

(3) The Court on issuing any commission may this rule shall direct whether the commission shall be returned to itself or to any subordinate Court.

 5 . Commission or request to examine witness not within India— Where any Court to which application is made for the issue of a commission for the examination of a person residing at any place not within India is satisfied that the evidence of such person is necessary, the Court may issue such commission or a letter of request.

 6 . Court to examine witness pursuant to Commission— Every Court receiving a commission for the examination of any person shall examine him or cause him to be examined pursuant thereto.

[311][subject to the provisions of rule 8] from part of the record of the suit.

 8 . When depositions may be read in evidence— Evidence taken under a commission shall not be read as evidence in the suit without the consent of the party against whom the same is offered, unless—

(a) the person who gave the evidence is beyond the jurisdiction of the Court, or dead or unable from sickness or infermity to attend to be personally examined, or exempted from personal appearance in Court or is a person in the service of the Government who cannot, in the opinion of the Court, attend without detriment to the public service, or

(b) the Court in its discretion dispenses with the proof of any of the circumstances mentioned in clause (a) and authorizes the evidence of any person being read as evidence in the suit, notwithstanding proof that the cause for taking such evidence by commission has ceased at the time of reading the same.

 Commissions for local investigations

 9 . Commissions to make local investigations— In any suit in which the Court deems a local investigation to be requisite or proper for the purpose of elecidating any matter in dispute, or of ascertaining the market-value of any property, or the amount of any mesne profits or damages or annual net profits, the Court may issue a commission to such person as it thinks fit directing him to make such investigation and to report thereon to the Court:

Provided that, where the State Government has made rules as to the persons to whom such commission shall be issued, the Court shall be bound by such rules.

 10 . Procedure of Commissioner— (1) The Commissioner, after such local inspection as he deems necessary and after reducing to writing the evidence taken by him, shall return such evidence, together with his report in writing signed by him, to the Court.

(2) Report and deposition to be evidence in suit. Commissioner may be examined in person—The report of the Commissioner and the evidence taken by him (but not the evidence without the report) shall be evidence in the suit and shall form part of the record; but the Court or, with the permission of the Court, any of the parties to suit may examine the Commissioner personally in open Court touching any part of the matters referred to him or mentioned in his report, or as to his report, or as to the manner in which he has made the investigation.

(3) Where the Court is for any reason dissatisfied with the proceedings of the Commissioner, it may direct such further inquiry to be made as it shall think fit.

[312] [Commissions for scientific investigation, performance of ministerial act and sale of movable property

 10A . Commission for scientific investigation— (1) Where any question arising in a suit involves any scientific investigation which cannot, in the opinion of the Court, be conveniently conducted before the Court, the Court may, if it thinks it necessary or expedient in the interests of justice so to do, issue a commission to such person as it thinks fit, directing him to inquire into such question and report thereon to the Court.

(2) The provisions of rule 10 of the Order shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to a Commissioner appointed under this rule as they apply in relation to a Commissioner appointed under rule 9.

 10B . Commission for performance of a ministerial act— (1) Where any question arising in a suit involves the performance of any ministerial act which cannot, in the opinion of the Court, be conveniently performed before the Court, the Court may, if, for reasons to be recorded, it is of opinion that it is necessary or expedient in the interests of justice so to do, issue a commission to such person as it thinks fit, directing him to perform that ministerial act and report thereon to the Court.

 10C . Commission for the sale of movable property— (1) Where in any suit, it becomes necessary to sell any movable property which is in the custody of the Court pending the determination of the suit and which cannot be conveniently preserved, the Court may, if, for reasons to be recorded, it is of opinion that it is necessary or expedient in the interests of justice so to do, issue a commission to such person as it thinks fit, directing him to conduct such sale and report thereon to the Court.

(2) The provisions of rule 10 of this Order shall apply in relation to a Commissioner appointed under this rule as they apply in relation to a Commissioner appointed under rule 9.

(3) Every such sale shall be held, as far as may be, in accordance with the procedure prescribed for the sale of movable property in execution of a decree.]

 Commissions to examine accounts

 11 . Commission to examine or adjust accounts— In any suit in which an examination or adjustment of the accounts is necessary, the Court may issue a commission to such person as it thinks fit directing him to make such examination or adjustment.

 12 . Court to give Commissioner necessary instructions— (1) The Court shall furnish the Commissioner with such part of the proceedings and such instructions as appear necessary, and the instructions shall distinctly specify whether the Commissioner is merely to transmit the proceedings which he may hold on the inquiry, or also to report his own opinion on the point referred for his examination.

(2) Proceedings and report to be evidence. Court may direct further inquiry—The proceedings and report (if any) of the Commissioner shall be evidence in the suit, but where the Court has reason to be dissatisfied with them, it may direct such further inquiry as it shall think fit.

 Commissions to make partitions

 13 . Commission to make partition of immovable property— Where a preliminary decree for partition has been passed, the Court may, in any case not provided for by section 54, issue a commission to such person as it thinks fit to make the partition or separation according to the rights as declared in such decree.

 14 . Procedure of Commissioner— (1) The Commissioner shall, after such inquiry as may be necessary, divide the property into as many shares as may be directly by the order under which the commission was issued, and shall allot such shares to the parties, and may, if authorised thereto by the said order, award sums to be paid for the purpose of equalizing the value of the shares.

(2) The commissioner shall then prepare and sign a report or the Commission (where the commission was issued to more than one person and they cannot agree) shall prepare and sign separate reports appointing the share of each party and distinguishing each share (if so directed by the said order) by metes and bounds. Such report or reports shall be annexed to the commission and transmitted to Court; and the Court, after hearing any objections which the parties may make to the report or reports, shall confirm, vary or set aside the same.

(3) Where the Court confirms or varies the report or reports it shall pass a decree in accordance with the same as confirmed or varied; but where the Court sets aside the report or reports it shall either issue a new commission or make such other order as it shall think fit.

 General provisions

 15 . Expenses of commission to be paid into Court— Before issuing any commission under this Order, the Court may order such sum (if any ) as it thinks reasonable for the expenses of the commission to be, within a time to be fixed, paid into Court by the party at whose instance or for whose benefit the commission is issued.

 16 . Powers of Commissioners— Any Commissioner appointed under this Order may, unless otherwise directed by the order of appointed.

(a) examine the parties themselves and any witness whom they or any of them may produce, and any other person whom the Commissioner thinks proper to call upon to give evidence in the matter referred to him;

(b) call for and examine documents and other things relevant to the subject of inquiry;

(c) at any reasonable time enter upon or into any land or building mentioned in the order.

 [313][16A . Questions objected to before the Commissioner— (1) Where any question put to a witness is objected to by a party or his pleader in proceedings before a Commissioner appointed under this Order, the Commissioner shall take down the question, the answer, the objections and the name of the party or, as the case may be, the pleader so objecting:

Provided that the Commissioner shall not take down the answer to a question which is objected to on the ground of privilege but may continue with the examination of the witness, leaving the party to get the question of privilege decided by the Court, and, where the Court decides that there is no question of privilege, the witness may be recalled by the Commissioner and examined by him or the witness may be examined by the Court with regard to the question which was objected to on the ground of privilege.

(2) No answer taken down under sub-rule (1) shall be read was evidence in the suit except by the order of the Court.]

 17 . Attendance and examination of witnesses before Commissioner— (1) The provisions of this Code relating to the summoning, attendance and examination of witnesses, and to the remuneration of, and penalties to be imposed upon, witnesses, shall apply to persons required to give evidence or to produce documents under this Order whether the commission in execution of which they are so required has been issued by a Court situate within or by a Court situate beyond the limits of India, and for the purposes of this rule the Commissioner shall be deemed to be a Civil Court:

[314] [Provided that when the Commissioner is not a Judge of a Civil Court he shall not be competent to impose penalties; but such penalties may be imposed on the application of such Commissioner by the Court by which the commission was issued.]

(2) A Commissioner may apply to any Court (not being a High Court) within the local limits on whose jurisdiction a witness resides for the issue of any process which he may find it necessary to issue to or against such witness, and such Court may, in its discretion, issue such process as it considers reasonable and proper.

 18 . Parties to appear before Commissioner— (1) Where a commission is issued under this Order, the Court shall direct that the parties to the suit shall appear before the Commissioner in person or by their agents or pleaders.

(2) Where all or any of the parties do not so appear, the Commissioner may proceed in their absence.

 [315][18A . Application of Order to execution proceedings— The provisions of this Order shall apply so far as may be, to proceedings in execution of a decree or order.

 18B . Court to fix a time for return of commission— The Court issuing a commission shall fix a date on or before which the commission shall be returned to it after execution, and the date so fixed shall not be extended except where the Court, for reasons to be recorded, is satisfied that there is sufficient cause for extending the date.]

 Commissions issued at the instance of foreign Tribunals

 19 . Cases in which High Court may issue commission to examine witness— (1) If a High Court is satisfied—

(a) that a foreign court situated in a foreign country wishes to obtain the evidence of a witness in any proceeding before it,

(b) that the proceeding is of a civil nature, and

(c) that the witness is residing within the limits of the High Court's appellate jurisdiction,

 it may, subject to the provisions of the rule 20, issue a commission for the examination of such witness.

(2) Evidence may be given of the matters specified in clauses (a), (b) and (c) of sub-rule (1)—

(a) by a certificate signed by the consular officer of the foreign country of the highest rank in India and transmitted to the High Court through the Central Government, or

(b) by a letter of request issued by the foreign Court and transmitted to the High Court through the Central Government, or

(c) by a letter of request issued by the foreign Court and produced before the High Court by a party to the proceeding.

 20 . Application for issue of commission— The High Court may issue a commission under rule 19—

(a) upon application by a party to the proceeding before the foreign Court, or

(b) upon an application by a law officer of the State Government acting under instructions from the State Government.

 21 . To whom commission may be issued— A commission under rule 19 may be issued to any Court within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the witness resides, or the witness resides within the local limits of the ordinary original civil jurisdiction of the High Court to any person whom the Court thinks fit to execute the commission.

[316][Sub-rule (1) of rule 16A, 17, 18 and 18B] of this Order in so far as they are applicable shall apply to the issue, execution and return of such commissions, and when any such commission has been duly executed it shall be returned, together with the evidence taken under it, to the High Court, which shall forward it to the Central Government, along with the letter of request for transmission to the foreign court.

 ORDER XXVII

  SUITS BY OR AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT OR PUBLIC OFFICERSRIN THEIR OFFICIAL CAPACITY

 1 . Suits by or against Government— In any suit by or against the Government the plaint or written statement shall be signed by such person as the Government may, by general or special order, appoint in this behalf, and shall be verified by any person whom the Government may so appoint and who is acquainted with the facts of the case.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh.— In the marginal heading of the Order, after the words "official capacity", insert the words "or Statutory Authorities, etc."

[U.P. Act 57 of 1976].

 2 . Persons authorised to act for Government— Persons being ex officio or otherwise authorised to act for the Government in respect of any judicial proceeding shall be deemed to be the recognised agents by whom appearances, act and applications under this Code may be made or done on behalf of the Government.

 3 . Plaints in suits by or against Government— In suits by or against the Government instead of inserting in the plaint the name and description and place of residence of the plaintiff or defendant, it shall be sufficient to insert the appropriate name as provided in section 79.

 4 . Agent for Government to receive process— The Government pleader in any Court shall be the agent of the Government for the purpose of receiving processes against the Government issued by such Court.

 5 . Fixing of day for appearance on behalf of Government— The Court, in fixing the day for the Government to answer to the plaint, shall allow a reasonable time for the necessary communication with the Government through the proper channel, and for the issue of instructions to the Government pleader to appear and answer on behalf of the Government and may extend the time at its discretion but the time so extended shall not exceed two months in the aggregate.]

 [317][5A . Government to be joined as a party in a suit against a public officer— Where a suit is instituted against a public officer for damages or other relief in respect of any act alleged to have been done by him in his official capacity, the Government shall be joined as a party to the suit.

 5B . Duty of Court in suits against the Government or a public officer to assist in arriving at a settlement— (1) In every suit or proceeding to which the Government, or a public officer acting in his official capacity, is a party, it shall be the duty of the Court to make, in the first instance, every endeavour, where it is possible to do so consistently with the nature and circumstances of the case, to assist the parties in arriving at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit.

(2) If, in any such suit or proceeding, at any stage, it appears to the Court that there is a reasonable possibility of a settlement between the parties, the Court may adjourn the proceeding for such period as it thinks fit, to enable attempts to be made to effect such a settlement.

(3) The power conferred under sub-rule (2) is in addition to any other power of the Court to adjourn proceedings.]

 6 . Attendance of person able to answer questions relating to suit against Government— The Court may also in any case in which the Government pleader is not accompanied by any person on the part of the Government who may be able to answer any material questions relating to the suit, direct the attendance of such a person.

 7 . Extension of time to enable public officer to make reference to Government— (1)Where the defended is a public officer and, on receiving the summons, considers it proper to make a reference to the Government before answering the plaint, he may apply to the Court to grant such extension of the time fixed in the summons as may necessary to enable him to make such reference and to receive orders thereon through the proper channel.

(2) Upon such application the Court shall extend the time for so long as appears to it to be necessary.

 8 . Procedure in suits against public officer— (1) Where the Government undertakes the defence of a suit against a public officer, the Government pleader, upon being furnished with authority to appear and answer the plaint, shall apply to the Court, and upon such application the Court shall cause a note of his authority to be entered in the register of civil suits.

(2) Where no application under sub-rule (1) is made by the Government pleader on or before the day fixed in the notice for the defendant to appear and answer, the case shall proceed as in a suit between private parties:

Provided that the defendant shall not be liable to arrest, nor his property to attachment, otherwise than in execution of a decree.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh.— After rule 9 as inserted by Allahabad High Court insert the following:—

 "10. Suits by or against statutory authority.— (1) Any authority or Corporation, constituted by or under any law, may, from time to time, appoint a Standing Counsel, to be called Corporation pleader of that authority in any district and give information of such appointment to the District Judge and to Registrar of the High Court at Allahabad or at Lucknow Bench, as the case may be.

 (2) The Corporation pleader so appointed shall be the agent in that district of the appointing authority or Corporation for purposes of receiving processes against it but shall not act or plead without filing a vakalatnama or memorandum of appearance."

 

[U.P. Act 57 of 1976 amended by Notification dated 10.2.1981].

 8A . No security to be required from Government or a public officer in certain cases— No such security as is mentioned in rules 5 and 6 of Order XLI shall be required from the Government or, where the Government has undertaken the defence of the suit, from any public officer sued in respect of an act alleged to be done by him in his official capacity.

 8B . Definitions of "Government" and "Government pleader"— In this Order [unless otherwise expressly, provided "Government" and "Government pleader" mean respectively—

(a) in relation to any suit by or against the Central Government, or against a public officer in the service of that Government, the Central Government and such pleader as that Government may appoint whether generally or specially for the purposes of this Order;

(c) in relation to any suit by or against a State Government or against a public officer in the service of a State, the State Government and the Government pleader as defined in clause (7) of section 2, or such other pleader as the State Government may appoint, whether generally or specially, for the purposes of this Order.

 ORDER XXVIIA

  SUITS INVOLVING A SUBSTANTIAL QUESTION OF LAW AS TO THERINTERPRETATION OF THE CONSTITUTION [318][OR AS TO THERVALIDITY OF ANY STATUTORY INSTRUMENT]

 1 . Notice to the Attorney General or the Advocate- General— In any suit in which it appears to the Court that any such question as is referred to in clause (1) of Article 132, read with Article 147 of the Constitution is involved, the Court shall not proceed to determine that question until after notice has been given to the Attorney General for India if the question of law concerns the Central Government and to the Advocate- General of the State if the question of law concerns a State Government.

 [319][1A . Procedure in suits involving validity of any statutory instrument— In any suit in which it appears to the Court that any question as to the validity of any statutory instrument, not being a question of the nature mentioned in rule 1, is involved, the Court shall not proceed to determine that question except after giving notice—

(a) to the Government pleader, if the question concerns the Government, or

(b) to the authority which issued the statutory instrument, if the question concerns an authority other than Government.]

 2 . Court may add Government as party— The Court may at any stage of the proceedings order that the Central Government or a State Government shall be added as a defendant in any suit involving any such question as it referred to in clause (1) of Article 132 read with Article 147, of the Constitution, if the Attorney General for India or the Advocate-General of the State, as the case may be, whether upon receipt of notice under rule 1, or otherwise, applies for such addition and the Court is satisfied that such addition is necessary or desirable for the satisfactory determination of the question of law involved.

 [320][2A . Power of Court to add Government or other authority as a defendant in a suit relating to the validity of any statutory instrument— The Court may, at any stage of the proceedings in any suit involving any such question as is referred to in rule 1A, order that the Government or other authority shall be added as a defendant if the Government pleader or the pleader appearing in the case for the authority which issued the instrument, as the case may be, whether upon receipt of notice under rule 1A or otherwise, applies for such addition, and the Court is satisfied that such addition is necessary or desirable for the satisfactory determination of the question.]

 [321][3 . Costs— Where, under rule 2 or rule 2A the Government or any other authority is added as a defendant in a suit, the Attorney-General, Advocate-General or Government Pleader or Government or other authority shall not be entitled to, or liable for, costs in the Court which ordered the addition unless the Court, having regard to all the circumstances of the case for any special reason, otherwise orders.]

 4 . Application or Order to appeals— In application of this Order to appeals the word "defendant" shall be held to include a respondent and the word "suit" an appeal.

[322] [Explanation—In this Order, "statutory instrument" means a rule, notification, bye-law order, scheme or form made as specified under any enactment.]

 ORDER XXVIII

  SUITS BY OR AGAINST MILITARY OR NAVAL MEN OR AIRMEN

 1 . Officers, soldiers, sailors or airmen who cannot obtain leave may authorize any person to sue or defend for them— (1) Where any officer, soldier, sailor or airman, actual serving under the Government in such capacity is a party to a suit, and cannot obtain leave of absence for the purpose of prosecuting or defending the suit in person, he may authorize any person to sue or defend in his stead.

(2) The authority shall be writing and shall be signed by the officer, soldier, sailor or airman in the presence of (a) his commanding officer, or the next subordinate officer, if the party is himself the commanding officer, or (b) where the officer, soldier, sailor or airman, is serving in military, naval or air force staff employment the head or other superior officer of the office in which he is employed. Such commanding or other officer shall countersign the authority, which shall be filed in Court.

(3) When so filed the countersignature shall be sufficient proof that the authority was duly executed, and that the officer, soldier, sailor or airman by whom it was granted could not obtain leave of absence for the purpose of prosecuting of defending the suit in person.

Explanation—In this Order the expression "commanding officer" means the officer in actual command for the time being of an regiment, corps, ship, detachment or depot which the officer, soldier sailor or airman belongs.

 2 . Person so authorized may act personally or appoint pleader— Any person authorized by an officer, soldier, sailor or airman to prosecute or defend a suit in his stead may prosecute or defend it in person in the same manner as the officer, soldier, sailor or airman could do if present; or he may appoint a pleader to prosecute or defend the suit on behalf of such officer, soldier, sailor or airman.

 3 . Service on person so authorized, or on his pleader, to be service— Process served upon any person authorized by an officer soldier, sailor or airman under rule 1 or upon any pleader appointed as aforesaid by such person shall be as effectual as if they had been served on the party in person.

 ORDER XXIX

  SUITS BY OR AGAINST CORPORATIONS

 1 . Subscription and verification of pleading— In suits by or against a corporation, any pleading may be signed and verified on behalf of the corporation by the security or by any director or other principal officer of the corporation who is able to depose to the facts of the case.

 2 . Service on corporation— Subject to any statutory provision regulating service of process, where the suit is against a corporation, the summons may be served—

(a) on the secretary, or on any director, or other principal officer of the corporation, or

(b) by leaving it or sending it by post addressed to the corporation at the registered office, or if there is no registered office then at the place where the corporation carries on business.

STATE AMENDMENTS

Uttar Pradesh— In its application to the State of Uttar Pradesh, in Order XXIX, rule 2, insert the following, after clause (a):—

 "(aa) on its corporation pleader in the district where the Court issuing summons is located, if one has been appointed and the appointment has been notified to the District Judge under rule 10 of Order XXVII, or."

 

[U.P. Act 57 of 1976].

 3 . Power to require personal attendance of officer of corporation— The Court may, at any stage of the suit, require the personal appearance of the secretary or of any director, or other principal officer of the corporation who may be able to answer material questions relating to the suit.

 ORDER XXX

  SUITS BY OR AGAINST FIRMS AND PERSONS CARRYING ON BUSINESS  IN NAMES OTHER THAN THEIR OWN

 1 . Suing of partners in name of firm— (1) Any two or more persons claiming or being liable as partners and carrying on business, in India may sue or be sued in the name of the firm (if any) of which such persons were partners at the time of the accruing of the cause of action, and any party to a suit may in such case apply to the Court for a statement of the names and addresses of the persons who were, at the time of the accruing of the cause of action, partners in such firm, to be furnished and verified in such manner as the Court may direct.

(2) Where persons sue or are sued partners in the name of their firm under sub-rule (1), it shall, in the case of any pleading or other document required by or under this Code to be signed, verified or certified by the plaintiff or the defendant, suffice such pleading or other document  is signed, verified or certified by any one of such persons.

 2 . Disclosure of partners' names— (1) Where a suit is instituted by partners in the name of their firm, the plaintiffs or their pleader shall, on demanding writing by or on behalf of any defendant, forthwith declare in writing the names and places of residence of all the persons constituting the firm on whose behalf the suit is instituted.

(2) Where the plaintiffs or their pleader fail to comply with any demand made under sub-rule (1) all proceedings in the suit may, upon an application for that purpose, be stayed upon such terms as the Court may direct.

(3) Where the names of the partners are declared in the manner referred to in sub-rule (1) the suit shall proceed in the same manner, and the same consequences in all respects shall follow, as if they had been named as plaintiffs in the plaint:

[323] [Provided that all proceedings shall nevertheless continue in the name of the firm, but the name of the partners disclosed in the manner specified in sub-rule (1) shall be entered in the decree.]

 3 . Service— Where persons are sued as partners in the name of their firm, the summons shall be served either—

(a) upon any one or more of the partners, or

(b) at the principal place at which the partnership business is carried on within India upon any person having, at the time of service, the control or management or the partnership business, there,

 as the Court may direct; and such service shall be deemed good service upon the firm so sued, whether all or any of the partners are within or without India:

Provided that, in the case of a partnership which has been dissolved to the knowledge of the plaintiff before the institution of the suit, the summons shall be served upon every person within India whom it is sought to make liable.

 4 . Rights of suit on death of partner— (1) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 45 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 (9 of 1872) where two or more persons may sue or be sued in the name of a firm under the foregoing provisions and any of such persons dies, whether before the institution or during the pendency of any suit, it shall not be necessary to join the legal representative of the deceased as a party to the suit.

(2) Nothing in sub-rule (1) shall limit or otherwise effect any right which the legal representative of the deceased may have—

(a) to apply to be made a party to the suit, or

(b) to enforce any claim against the survivor or survivors.

 5 . Notice in what capacity served— Where a summons is issued to a firm and is served in the manner provided by rule 3 , every person upon whom it is served shall be informed by notice in writing given at the time of such service, whether he is served as a partner or as a person having the control or management of the partnership business, or in both characters, and, in default of such notice, the person served shall be deemed to be served as a partner.

 6 . Appearance of partners— Where persons are sued as partners in the name of their firm, they shall appear individually in their own names, but all subsequent proceedings shall, nevertheless, continue in the name of the firm.

 7 . No appearance except by partners— Where a summons is served in the manner provided by rule 3 upon a person having the control or management of the partnership business, no appearance by him shall be necessary unless he is a partner of the firm sued.

 [324][8 . Appearance under protest— (1) Any person served with summons as a partner under rule 3 may enter an appearance under protest, denying that he was a partner at an material time.

(2) On such appearance being made, either the plaintiff or the person entering the appearance may, at any time before the date fixed for hearing and final disposal of the suit, apply to the Court for determinig whether that person was a partner of the firm and liable as such.

(3) If, on such application, the Court holds that he was a partner at the material time, that shall not preclude the person from filing a defence denying the liability of the firm in respect of the claim against the defendant.

(4) If the Court, however, holds that such person was not a partner of the firm and was not liable as such that shall not preclude the plaintiff from otherwise serving a summons on the firm and proceeding with the suit; but in that event, the plaintiff shall be precluded from alleging the laibility of that person as a partner of the firm in execution of any decree that may be passed against the firm.]

 9 . Suits between co-partners— This Order shall apply to suits between a firm and one or more of the partners therein and to suits between firms having one or more partners, in common; but not execution shall be issued in such suits except by leave of the Court, and, on an application for leave to issue such execution, all such accounts and inquiries may be directed to be taken and made and directions given as may be just.

 [325][10 . Suit against person carrying on business in name other than his own— Any person carrying on business in a name or style other than his own name, or a Hindu undivided family carrying on business under any name, may be sued in such name or style as if it were a firm name, and, in so far as the nature of such case permits, all rules under this Order shall apply accordingly.]

 ORDER XXXI

  SUITS BY OR AGAINST TRUSTEES, EXECUTORS AND ADMINISTRATORS

 1 . Representation of beneficiaries in suits concerning property vested in trustees, etc.— In all suits concerning property vested in a trustee, executor or administrator, where the contention is between the persons beneficially interested in such property and a third person, the trustee; executor or Administator shall represent the persons so interested, and it shall not ordinarily be necessary to make them parties to the suit. But the Court may, if it thinks fit, order them or any of them to be made parties.

 2 . Joinder of trustee, executors and administrators— Where there are several trustees, executors or administrators, they shall all be made parties to a suit against one or more of them:

Provided that the executors who have not proved their testator's will, and trustees, executors and administrators outside India need not be made parties.

 3 . Husband of married executrix not to join— Unless the Court directs otherwise, the husband of a married trustee, administratrix or executrix shall not as such be a party to a suit by or against her.

 ORDER XXXII

  SUITS BY OR AGAINST MINORS AND PERSONS OF UNSOUND MIND

 1 . Minor to sue by next friend— Every suit by a minor shall be instituted in his name by a person who in such shall be called the next friend of the minor.

[326]Explanation—In this Order, "minor" means a person who has not attained his majority within the meaning of section 3 of the Indian Majority Act, 1875 (9 of 1875) where the suit relates to any of the matters mentioned in clauses (a) and (b) of section 2 of that Act or to any other matter.]

 2 . Where suit is instituted without next friend, plaint to be taken off the file— (1) Where a suit is instituted by or on behalf of a minor without a next friend, the defendant may apply to have the plaint taken off the file, with costs to be paid by the pleader or other person by whom it was presented.

(2) Notice of such application shall be given to such person, and the Court, after hearing his objections (if any) may make such order in the matter as it thinks fit.

 [327][2A . Security to be furnished by next friend when so ordered— (1) Where a suit has been instituted on behalf of the minor by his next friend, the Court may, at any stage of the suit, either of its own motion or on the application of any defendant, and for the reasons to be recorded, order the next friend to give security for the payment of all costs incurred or likely to be incurred by the defendant.

(2) Where such a suit is instituted by an indigent person, the security shall include the court-fees payable to the Government.

(3) The provisions of rule 2 of Order XXV shall, so far as may be, apply to a suit where the Court makes an order under this rule directing security to be furnished.]

 3 . Guardian for the suit to be appointed by Court for minor defendant— (1) Where the defendant is a minor the Court, on being satisfied of the fact of his minority, shall appoint a proper person to be guardian for the suit for such minor.

(2) An order for the appointment of a guardian for the suit may be obtained upon application in the name and on behalf of the minor or by the plaintiff.

(3) Such application shall be supported by an affidavit verifying the fact that the proposed guardian has no interest in the matters in controversy in the suit adverse to that of the minor and that he is a fit person to be so appointed.

(4) Order shall be made on any application under this rule except upon notice to any [328]*** to any guardian of the minor appointed or declared by an authority competent in that behalf, or, where there is no such guardian, [329][upon notice to the father or where there is no father, to the mother, or where there is no father or mother, to other natural guardian] of the minor, or, where there is [330][no father, mother or other natural guardian], to the person in whose care the minor is, and after hearing any objection which may be urged on behalf of any person served with notice under this sub-rule.

[331][(4A) The Court may, in any case, if it thinks fit, issue notice under sub-rule (4) to the minor also.]

(5) A person appointed under sub-rule (1) to be guardian for the suit for a minor shall, unless his appointment is terminated by retirement, removal or death, continue as such throughout all proceedings arising out of the suit including proceedings in any Appellate or Revisional Court and any proceedings in the execution of a decree.

 [332][3A . Decree against minor to be set aside unless prejudice has been caused to his interests— (1) No decree passed against a minor shall be set aside merely on the ground that the next friend or guardian for the suit of the minor had an interest in the subject-matter of the suit adverse to that of the minor, but the fact that by reasons of such adverse interest of the next friend of guardian for the suit, prejudice has been caused to the interests of the minor, shall be a ground for setting aside the decree.

(2) Nothing in this rule shall preclude the minor from obtaining any relief available under any law by reason of the misconduct or gross negligence on the part of the next friend or guardian for the suit resulting in prejudice to the interests of the minor.]

 4 . Who may act as next friend or be appointed guardian for the suit— (1) Any person who is of sound mind and has attained majority may act as next friend of a minor or as his guardian for the suit:

Provided that the interest of such person is not adverse to that of the minor and that he is not, in the case of a next friend, a defendant, or, in the case of a guardian for the suit, a plaintiff.

(2) Where a minor has a guardian appointed or declared by competent authority, no person other than such guardian shall act as the next friend of the minor or be appointed his guardian for the suit unless the Court considers, for reasons to be recorded, that it is for the minor's welfare that another person be permitted to act or be appointed, as the case may be.

(3) No person shall without his consent [333][in writing] be appointed guardian for the suit.

(4) Where there is no other person fit and willing to act as guardian for the suit, for Court may appoint any of its officers to be such guardian, and may direct that the costs to be incurred by such officer in the performance of his duties as such guardian shall be borne either by the parties or by any one or more of the parties to the suit, or out of any fund in Court in which the minor is interested [334][or out of the property of the minor], and may give directions for the repayment or allowance of such costs as justice and the circumstances of the case may require.

 5 . Representation of minor by next friend or guardian for the suit— (1) Every application to the Court on behalf of a minor, other than an application under rule 10, sub-rule (2), shall be made by his next friend or by his guardian for the suit.

(2) Every order made in a suit or on any application, before the Court in or by which a minor is in any way concerned or affected, without such minor being represented by a next friend or guardian for the suit, as the case may be, may be discharged, and, where the pleader of the party at whose instance such order was obtained knew, or might reasonably have known, the fact of such minority, with costs to be paid by such pleader.

 6 . Receipt by next friend or guardian for the suit of property  under decree for minor— (1) A next friend or guardian for the suit shall not, without the leave of the Court, receive any money or other movable property on behalf of a minor either—

(a) by way of compromise before decree or order, or

(b) under a decree or order in favour of the minor.

(2) Where the next friend or guardian for the suit has not been appointed or declared by competent authority to be guardian of the property of the minor, or, having been so appointed or declared, is under any disability known to the Court to receive the money or other movable property, the Court shall, if it grants him leave to receive the property, require such security and give such directions as will, in its opinion, sufficiently protect the property from waste and ensure its proper application:

[335][Provided that the Court may, for reasons to be recorded, dispense with such security while granting leave to the next friend or guardian for the suit to receive money or other movable property under a decree or order, where such next friend or guardian—

(a) is the manager of a Hindu undivided family and the decree or order relates to the property or business of the family; or

(b) is the parent of the minor.]

 7 . Agreement or compromise by next friend or guardian for the suit— (1) No next friend or guardian for the suit shall, without the leave of the Court, expressly recorded in the proceedings, enter into any agreement or compromise on behalf of a minor with reference to the suit in which he acts as next friend or guardian.

[336][(1A) An application for leave under sub-rule (1) shall be accompanied by an affidavit of the next friend of the guardian for the suit, as the case may be, and also, if the minor is represented by a pleader, by the certificate of the pleader, to the effect that the agreement or compromise proposed is, in his opinion, for the benefit of the minor:

Provided that the opinion so expressed, whether in the affidavit or in the certificate shall not preclude the Court from examining whether the agreement or compromise proposed is for the benefit of the minor.]

(2) Any such agreement or compromise entered into without the leave of the Court so recorded shall be voidable against all parties other than the minor.

 8 . Retirement of next friend— (1) Unless otherwise ordered by the Court, a next friend shall not retire without first procuring a fit person to be put in his place and giving security for the costs already incurred.

(2) The application for the appointment of a new next friend shall be supported by an affidavit showing the fitness of the person proposed and also that he has no interest adverse to that of the minor.

 9 . Removal of next friend— (1)Where the interest of the next friend of a minor is adverse to that of the minor or where he is so connected with a defendant whose interest is adverse to that of the minor as to make it unlikely that the minor's interest will be properly protected by him, or where he does not do his duty, or during the pendency of the suit, ceases to reside within India or for any other sufficient cause, application may be made on behalf of the minor or by a defendant for his removal; and the Court, if satisfied of the sufficiency of the cause assigned, may order the next friend to be removed accordingly, and make such other order as to costs as it thinks fit.

(2) Where the next friend is not a guardian appointed or declared by an authority competent in this behalf, and an application is made by a guardian so appointed or declared, who desires to be himself appointed in the place of the next friend, the Court shall remove that next friend unless it considers, for reasons to be recorded by it, that the guardian ought not to be appointed the next friend of the minor and shall thereupon appoint the applicant to be next friend in his place upon such terms as to the costs already incurred in the suit as it thinks fit.

 10 . Stay of proceedings on removal, etc., of next friend— (1) On the retirement, removal or death of the next friend of a minor, further proceedings shall be stayed until the appointment of a next friend in his place.

(2) Where the pleader of such minor omits, within a reasonable time, to take steps to get a new friend appointed, any person interested in the minor or in the matter in issue may apply to the Court for the appointment of one, and the Court may appoint such person as it thinks fit.

 11 . Retirement, removal or death of guardian for the suit— (1) Where the guardian for the suit desire to retire or does not do his duty, or where there sufficient ground is made to appear, the Court may permit such guardian to retire or may remove him, and may make such order as to costs as it thinks fit.

(2) Where the guardian for the suit retires, dies or is removed by the Court during the pendency of the suit, the Court shall appoint a new guardian in his place.

 12 . Course to be followed by minor plaintiff or applicant on attaining majority— (1) A minor plaintiff or a minor not a party to a suit on whose behalf an application is pending shall, on attaining majority, elect whether  he will proceed with the suit or application.

(2) Where he elects to proceed with the suit or application, he shall apply for an order discharging the next friend and for leave to proceed in his own name.

(3) The title of the suit or application shall in such case be corrected so as to read henceforth thus:

"A.B., late a minor, by C.D., his next friend, but now having attained majority."

(4) Where he elects to abandon the suit or application, he shall, if a sole plaintiff or sole applicant, apply for an order to dismiss the suit or application on repayment of the costs incurred by the defendant or opposite party or which may have been paid by his next friend.

(5) Any application under this rule may be made ex parte but no order discharging a next friend and permitting a minor plaintiff to proceed in his own name shall be made without notice to the next friend.

 13 . Where minor co-plaintiff attaining, majority desires to repudiate suit— (1) Where a minor co-plaintiff on attaining majority desires to repudiate the suit, he shall apply to  have his name struck out as co-plaintiff; and the Court, if it finds that he is not a necessary party shall dismiss him from the suit on such terms as to costs or otherwise as it thinks fit.

(2) Notice of the application shall be served on the next friend, on any co-plaintiff and on the defendant.

(3) The costs of all parties of such application, and of all or any proceedings therefore had in the suit, shall be paid by such persons as the Court directs.

(4) Where the applicant is a necessary party to the suit, the Court may direct him to be made a defendant.

 14 . Unreasonable or improper suit— (1) A minor on attaining majority may, if a sole plaintiff, apply that a suit instituted in his name by his next friend be dismissed on the ground that it was unreasonable or improper.

(2) Notice of the application shall be served on all the parties concerned; and the Court, upon being satisfied of such unreasonableness or impropriety, grant the application and order the next friend to pay the costs of all parties in respect of the application and of anything done in the suit, or make such other order as it thinks fit.

[337][15 . Rules 1 to 14 (except rule 2A) to apply to persons of unsound mind— Rules 1 to 14 (except rule 2A) shall, so far as may be, apply to persons adjudged, before or during the pendency of the suit, to be of unsound mind and shall also apply to persons who, though not so adjudged, are found by the Court on enquiry to be incapable, by reason of any mental infirmity, or protecting their interest when suing or being sued.]

[338] [16 . Savings— (1) Nothing contained in this Order shall apply to the Ruler of a foreign State suing or being sued in the name of his State, or being sued by the direction of the Central Government in the name of an agent or in any other name.

(2) Nothing contained in this Order shall construed as affecting or in any way derogating from the provisions of any local law for the time being in force relating to suits by or against minors or by against lunatics or other persons of unsound mind.]

 Order XXXII A ins. by Sec. 80 by Act No. 104 of 1976 (w.e.f. 1977).

 

 

 [339][ORDER XXXIIA

  SUITS RELATING TO MATTERS CONCERNING THE FAMILY

 1 . Application of the Order— (1) The provision of this Order shall apply to suits or proceedings relating to matters concerning the family.

(2) In particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the provisions of sub-rule (1), the provisions of this Order shall apply to the following suits or proceedings concerning the family, namely:—

(a) a suit or proceeding for matrimonial relief, including a suit or proceeding for declaration as to the validity of a marriage or as to the matrimonial status of any person;

(b) a suit or proceeding for a declaration as to legitimacy of any person;

(c) a suit or proceeding in relation to the guardianship of the person or the custody of any minor or other member of the family, under a disability;

(d) a suit or proceeding for maintenance;

(e) a suit or proceeding as to the validity or effect of an adoption;

(f) a suit or proceeding, instituted by a member of the family relating to wills, intestacy and succession;

(g) a suit or proceeding relating to any other matter concerning the family in respect of which the parties are subject to their personal law.

(3) So much of this Order as relates to a matter provided for by a special law in respect of any suit or proceeding shall not apply to that suit or proceeding.

 2 . Proceedings to be held in camera— In every suit or proceeding to which this Order applies, the proceeding may be held in camera if the Court so desires and shall be so held if either party so desires.

 3 . Duty of Court to make efforts for settlement— (1) In every suit or proceeding to which this Order applies, an endeavour shall be made by the Court in the first instance, where it is possible to do so consistent with the nature and circumstances of the case, to assist the parties in arriving at a settlement in respect of the subject-matter of the suit.

(2) If, in any such suit or proceeding, at any stage it appears to the Court that there is a reasonable possibility of a settlement between the parties, the Court may adjourn the proceeding for such period as it thinks fit to enable attempts to be made to effect such a settlement.

(3) The power conferred by sub-rule (2) shall be in addition to, and not in derogation of, any other power of the Court to adjourn the proceedings.

 4 . Assistance of welfare expert— In every suit or proceeding to which this Order applies, it shall be open to the Court to secure the services of such person (preferably a woman where available), whether related to the parties or not, including a person professionally engaged in promoting the welfare of the family as the Court may think fit, for the purpose of assisting the Court in discharging the functions imposed by rule 3 or this Order.

 5 . Duty to inquire into facts— In every suit or proceeding to which this Order applies, it shall be the duty of the Court to inquire, so far is reasonably can, into the facts alleged by the plaintiff and into any facts alleged by the defendant.

 6 . "Family"—meaning of— For the purposes of this Order, each of the following shall be treated as constituting a family, namely:—

(a) (i) a man and his wife living together,

(ii) any child or children, being issue or theirs; or of such man or such wife,

(iii) any child or children being maintained by such man or wife;

(b) a man not having a wife or not living together with his wife, any child or children, being issue of his, and any child or children being maintained by him;

(c) a woman not having a husband or not living together with her husband, any child or children being issue of hers, and any child or children being maintained by her;

(d) a man or woman and his or her brother, sister, ancestor or lineal descendant living with him or her; and

(e) any combination of one or more of the groups specified in clause (a), clause (b), clause (c) or clause (d) of this rule.

Explanation—For the avoidance of doubts, it is hereby declared that the provisions of rule 6 shall be without any prejudice to the concept of "family" in any personal law or in any other law for the time being in force.]

 ORDER XXXIII

  [340] [SUITS BY INDIGENT PERSONS]

[341][indigent person.]

[342] [Explanation I—A person is an  indigent person,—

(a) if he is not possessed of sufficient means (other than property exempt from attachment in execution of a decree and the subject-matter of the suit) to enable him to pay the fee prescribed by law for the plaint in such suit, or

(b) where no such fee is prescribed, if he is not entitled to property worth one thousand rupees other than the property exempt from attachment in execution of a decree, and the subject-matter of the suit.

Explanation II—Any property which is acquired by a person after the presentation of his application for permission to sue as an indigent person, and before the decision of the application, shall be taken into account in considering the question whether or not the applicant is an indigent person.

Explanation II—Where the plaintiff sued in a representative capacity, the question whether he is an indigent person shall be determined with reference to the means possessed by him in such capacity.]

 [343][1A . Inquiry into the means of an indigent person— Every inquiry into the question whether or not a person is an indigent person shall be made, in the first instance, by the chief ministerial officer of the Court, unless the Court otherwise directs, and the Court may adopt the report of such officer as its own finding or may itself make an inquiry into the question.]

[344][indigent person] shall contain the particulars required in regard to plaints in suits: a schedule of any movable or immovable property belonging to the applicant, with the estimated value thereof, shall be annexed thereto; and it shall be signed and verified in the manner prescribed for the signing and verification of pleadings.

 3 . Presentation of application— Notwithstanding anything contained in these rules, the application shall be presented to the Court by the applicant in person, unless he is exempted from appearing in Court, in which case the application may be presented by an authorized agent who can answer all material questions relating to the application, and who may be examined in the same manner as the party represented by him might have been examined had such party attended in person:

 

 [345][Provided that, where there are more plaintiffs than one, it shall be sufficient if the application is presented by one of the plaintiffs.]

 

 4 . Examination of applicant— (1) Where the application is in proper form and duly presented, the Court may, if it thinks fit, examine the applicant, or his agent when the applicant is allowed to appear by agent, regarding the merits of the claim and the property of the applicant.

(2) If presented agent, Court may order applicant to be examined by commission—Where the application is presented by an agent, the Court may, if it thinks fit, order that the applicant be examined by a commission in the manner in which the examination of an absent witness may be taken.

[346][an indigent person]—

(a) where it is not framed and presented in the manner prescribed by rules 2 and 3, or

(b) where the applicant is not an [347][indigent persons], or

(c) where he has, within two months next before the presentation of the application disposed of any property fraudulently or in order to be able to apply for permission to sue as [348][an indigent person]:

[349] [Provided that no application shall be rejected if, even after the value of the property disposed of by the applicant is taken into account, the applicant would be entitled to sue as an indigent person,] or

(d) where his allegations do not show a cause of action, or

(e) where he has entered into any agreement with reference to the subject-matter of the proposed suit under which any other person has obtained an interest in such subject-matter, [350][or]

[351] [(f) where the allegations made by the applicant in the application show that the suit would be barred by any law for the time being in force, or

(g) where any other person has entered into an agreement with him to finance the litigation.]

 6 . Notice of day for receiving evidence of applicant's indigency— Where the Court sees no reason to reject the application on any of the grounds stated in rule 5, it shall fix a day  (of which at least ten day's clear notice shall be given to the opposite party and the Government pleader) for receiving such evidence as the application may adduce in proof of his indigency, and for hearing any evidence which may be adduced in disproof thereof.

 7 . Procedure at hearing— (1) On the day so fixed or as soon thereafter as may be convenient the Court shall examine the witnesses (if any) produced by either party, and may examine the applicant or his agent, and shall make a full record of their evidence.

[352] [(1A) The examination of the witnesses under sub-rule (1) shall be confined to the matters specified in clause (b), clause (c) and clause (e) of rule 5 but the examination of the applicant or his agent may relate to any of the matters specified in rule 5.]

(2) The Court shall also hear any argument which the parties may desire to offer on the question whether, on the face of the application and of the evidence (if any) taken by the Court [353][under rule 6 or under this rule], the applicant is or is not subject to any of the prohibitions specified in rule 5.

(3) The Court shall then either allow or refuse to allow the applicant to sue as [354] [an indigent person].

[355][or fees payable for service of process] in respect of any petition, appointment of a pleader or other proceeding connected with the suit.

 9 . Withdrawal of permission to sue as an indigent person— The Court may, on the application of the defendant, or of the Government pleader, of which seven days' clear notice in writing has been given to the plaintiff, order that the permission granted to the plaintiff to sue as an indigent person be withdrawn—

(a) if he is guilty of vexatious or improper conduct in the course of the suit;

(b) if it appears that his means are such that he ought not to  continue to sue as [356] [an indigent person]; or

(c) if he has entered into any agreement with reference to the subject-matter of the suit under which any other person has obtained an interested in such subject-matter.

 [357][9A . Court to assign a pleader to an unrepresented indigent person— (1) Where a person, who is permitted to sue as an indigent person, is not represented by a pleader, the Court may, if the circumstances of the case so require, assign a pleader to him.

(2) The High Court may, with the previous approval of the State Government, make rules providing for—

(a) the mode of selecting pleaders to be assigned under sub-rule (1);

(b) the facilities to be provided to such pleaders by the Court;

(c) any other matter which is required to be or may be provided by the rules for giving effect to the provisions of sub-rule (1).]

[358][indigent person]; such amount shall be recoverable by the State Government any party order by the decree to pay the same and shall be a first charge on the subject-matter of the suit.

 11 . Procedure where indigent person fails— Where the plaintiff fails in the suit or the permission granted to him to sue as an indigent person has been withdrawn, or where the suit is withdrawn or dismissed,—

(a) because the summons for the defendant to appear and answer has not been served upon him in consequence of the failure of the plaintiff to pay the court-fee or postal charges (if any) chargeable for such service [359][or to present copies of the plaint or concise statement], or

(b) because the plaintiff does not appear when the suit is called on for hearing,

 the Court shall order the plaintiff, or any person added as a co-plaintiff to the suit, to pay the court-fees which would have been paid by the plaintiff if he had not been permitted to sue as an [360][indigent person].

[361][indigent person] shall be recoverable by the State Government from the estate of the deceased plaintiff.]

 12 . State Government may apply for payment of court-fees— The State Government shall have the right at any time to apply to the Court to make an order for the payment of court-fees under rule 10, rule 11 or rule 11A.

 13 . State Government to be deemed a party— All matters arising between the State Government and any party to the suit under rule 10, rule 11 rule 11A or rule 12 shall be deemed to be questions arising between the parties to the suit within the meaning of section 47.

 14 . Recovery of amount of court-fees.— Where an order is made under rule 10, rule 11 or rule 11A, the court shall forthwith cause a copy of the decree or order to be forwarded to the Collector who may, without prejudice to any other mode of recovery, recover the amount of court-fees specified therein from the person or property liable for the payment as if it were an arrear of land revenue.

[362] [indigent person] shall be a bar to any subsequent application of the like nature by him in respect of the same right to sue; but the applicant shall be at liberty to institute a suit in the ordinary manner in respect of such right; [363][Provided that the plaint shall be rejected if he does not pay, either at the time of the institution of the suit or within such time thereafter as the Court may allow,] the costs (if any) incurred by the State Government and by the opposite party in opposing his application for leave to sue as an [364][indigent person.]

 [365][[1]**** rule 15 with in that time, the suit shall be deemed to have been instituted on the date on which the application for permission to sue as an indigent person was presented.]

[366][indigent person] and of an inquiry into indigency shall be costs in the suit.

 [367][17 . Defence by an indigent person— Any defendant, who desire to plead a set-off or counter-claim, may be allowed to set up such claim as an indigent person, and the rules contained in this Order shall so far as may be, apply to him as if he were a plaintiff and his written statement were a plaint.

 18 . Power of Government to provide for free legal services to indigent persons— (1) Subject to the provisions of this Order, the Central or State Government may make such supplementary provisions as it thinks fit for providing free legal services to those who have been permitted to sue as indigent persons.

(2) The High Court may, with previous approval of the State Government, make rules for carrying out the supplementary provisions made by the Central or State Government for providing free legal services to indigent persons referred to in sub-rule (1), and such rules may include the nature and extent of such legal services, the conditions under which they may be made available, the matters in respect of which, and the agencies through which, such services may be rendered.]

 ORDER XXXIV

  SUITS RELATING TO MORTGAGES OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

 1 . Parties to suits for foreclosure sale and redemption— Subject to the provisions of this Code, all persons having an interest either in the mortgage-security or in the right of redemption shall be joined as parties to any suit relating to the mortgage.

Explanation—A puisne mortgagee may sue for foreclosure or for sale without making the prior mortgagee a party to the suit; and a prior mortgage need not be joined in a suit to redeem a subsequent mortgage.

 2 . Preliminary decree in foreclosure suit— (1) In a suit for foreclosure, if the plaintiff succeeds, the Court shall pass a preliminary decree—

(a) ordering that an account be taken of what was due to the plaintiff at the date of such decree for—

(i) principal and interest on the mortgage,

(ii) the costs of suit, if any, awarded to him, and

(iii) other costs, charges and expenses properly incurred by him up to that date in respect of his mortgage-security, together with interest thereon; or

(b) declaring the mount so due at that date, and

(c) directing—

(i) that, if the defendant pays into Court the amount so found or declared due on or before such date as the Court may fix within six months from the date on which the Court confirms and countersigns the account taken under clause (a), or from the date on which such amount is declared in Court under clause (b), as the case may be, and thereafter pays such amount as may be adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges and expenses as provided in rule 10, together with subsequent interest on such sums respectively as provided in rule 11, the plaintiff shall deliver up to the defendant, or to such person as the defendant appoints, all documents in his possession or power relating to the mortgaged property, and shall, if so required, re-transfer the property to the defendant at his cost free from the mortgage and from all incumbrances created by the plaintiff or any person claiming under him, or, where the plaintiff claims by derived title, by those under whom he claims, and shall also, if necessary, put the defendant in possession of the property; and

(ii) that, if payment of the amount found or declared due under or by the preliminary decree is not made on or before the date so fixed, or the defendant fails to pay, within such time as the Court may fix the amount adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges, expenses and interest, the plaintiff shall be entitled to apply for a final decree debarring the defendant from all right to redeem the property.

(2) The Court may, on good cause shown and upon terms to be fixed by the Court, from time to time, at any time before a final decree is passed, extend the time fixed for the payment of the amount found or declared due under sub-rule (1) or of the amount adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges, expenses and interest.

(3) Where, in a suit for foreclosure, subsequent mortgagees or persons deriving title from, or subrogated to the rights, of any such mortgagees are joined as parties, the preliminary decree shall provide for the adjudication of the respective rights and liabilities of the parties to the suit in the manner and form set forth in Form No. 9 or Form No. 10 as the case may be, of Appendix D with such variations as the circumstances of the case may require.

 3 . Final decree in foreclosure suit— (1) Where, before a final decree debarring the defendant from all right to redeem the mortgaged property has been passed, the defendant makes payment into Court of all amounts due from him under sub-rule (1) of rule 2, the Court shall, on application made by the defendant in this behalf, pass a final decree—

(a) ordering the plaintiff to deliver up the documents referred to in the preliminary decree, and, if necessary—

(b) ordering him to re-transfer at the cost or the defendant the mortgaged property as directed in the said decree,

 and also, if necesssary—

(c) ordering him to put the defendant in possession of the property.

(2) Where payment in accordance with sub-rule (1) has not been made, the Court shall, on application made by the plaintiff in his behalf, pass a final decree declaring that the defendant and all persons claiming through or under him or debarred from all right to redeem the mortgaged property and also, if necessary ordering the defendant to put the plaintiff in possession of the property.

(3) On the passing of a final decree under sub-rule (2), all liabilities to which the defendant is subject in respect of the mortgage or on account of the suit shall be deemed to have been discharged.

 4 . Preliminary decree in suit for sale— (1) In a suit for sale, if the plaintiff succeeds, the Court shall pass a preliminary decree to the effect mentioned in clauses (a), (b) and (c) (i) of sub-rule (1) of rule 2, and further directing that, in default of the defendant paying as therein mentioned, the plaintiff shall be entitled to apply for a final decree directing that the mortgaged property or a sufficient part thereof be sold, and the proceeds of the sale (after deduction therefrom of the expenses of the sale) be paid into Court and applied in payment of what has been found or declared under or by the preliminary decree due to the plaintiff, together with such amount as may have been adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges, expenses and interest, and the balance, if any, be paid to the defendant or other persons entitled to receive the same.

(2) The Court may, on good cause shown and upon terms to be fixed by the Court, from time to time, at any any time before a final decree for sale is passed, extend the time fixed for the payment of the amount found or declared due under sub-rule (1) or of the amount adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges, expenses and interest.

(3) Power to decree sale in foreclosure suit—In a suit for foreclosure in the case of an anomalous mortgage, if the plaintiff succeeds, the Court may, at the instance of any party to the suit or of any other person interested in all mortgage-security or the right of redemption, pass a like decree (in lieu of a decree for foreclosure) on such terms as it thinks fit, including the deposit in Court of a reasonable sum fixed by the Court to meet the expenses of the sale and to secure the performance of the terms.

(4) Where, in a suit for sale or a suit for foreclosure in which sale is ordered, subsequent mortgagees or persons deriving title from, or subrogated to the rights of, any such mortgagees are joined as parties, the preliminary decree referred to in sub-rule (1) shall provide for the adjudication of the respective rights and liabilities of the parties to the suit in the manner and form set forth in Form No. 9, Form No. 10 or Form No. 11, as the case may be, of Appendix D with such variations as the circumstances of the case may require.

 5 . Final decree in suit for sale— (1) Where, on or before the day fixed or at any time before the confirmation of a sale made in pursuance of a final decree passed under sub-rule (3) of this rule, the defendant makes payment into Court of all amounts due from him under sub-rule (1) of rule 4, the Court shall, on application made by the defendant in this behalf, pass final or, if such decree has passed, an order—

(a) ordering the plaintiff to deliver up the documents referred to in the preliminary decree,

 and if necessary—

(b) ordering him to transfer the mortgaged property as directed in the said decree,

and, also, if necessary—

(c) ordering him to put the defendant in possession of the property.

(2) Where the mortgaged property or part thereof has been sold in pursuance of a decree passed under sub-rule (3) of this rule, the Court shall not pass an order under sub-rule (1) of this rule, unless the defendant in addition to the amount mentioned in sub-rule (1), deposits in Court for payment to the purchaser a sum equal to five per cent, of the amount of the purchase-money paid into Court by the purchaser.

Where such deposit has been made, the purchaser shall be entitled to an order for repayment of the amount of the purchase-money paid into Court by him, together with a sum equal to five per cent thereof.

(3) Where payment in accordance with sub-rule (1) has not been made, the Court shall, on application made by the plaintiff in this behalf, pass a final decree directing that the mortgaged property or a sufficient part thereof be sold, and that the proceeds of the sale be dealt with in the manner provided in sub-rule (1) of rule 4.

[368][rule 5] are found insufficient to pay the amount due to the plaintiff, the Court, on application by him may, if the balance is legally recoverable from the defendant otherwise than out of the property sold, pass a decree for such balance.

 7 . Preliminary decree is redemption suit— (1) In a suit for redemption, if the plaintiff succeeds, the Court shall pass a preliminary decree—

(a) ordering that an account be taken of what was due to the defendant at the date of such decree for—

(i) principal and interest on the mortgage,

(ii) the costs of suit, if any, awarded to him, and

(iii) other costs, charges and expenses properly incurred by him up to the date, in respect of his mortgage-security, together with interest thereon; or

(b) declaring the amount so at that date; and

(c) directing—

(i) that, if the plaintiff pays into Court the amount so found or declared due on or before such date as the Court may fix within six months from the date on which the Court confirms and countersigns the account taken under clause (a), or from the date on which such amount is declared in Court under clause (b), as the case may be, and thereafter pays such amount as may be adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges and expenses and provided in rule 10, together with subsequent interest on such sums respectively as provided in rule 11, the defendant shall deliver up to the plaintiff, or to such person as the plaintiff appoints all documents in his possession or power relating to the mortgaged property, and shall, if so required, retransfer the property to the plaintiff at his cost free from the mortgage and from all incumbrances created by the defendant or any person claiming under him where the defendant claims by derived title, by those under whom he claims, and shall also, if necessary put the plaintiff in possession of the property; and

(ii) that, if payment of the amount found or declared due under or by the preliminary decree is not made on or before the date so fixed, or the plaintiff fails to pay, within such time as the Court may fix, the amount adjudged due in respect of subsequent costs, charges expenses and interest, the defendant shall be entitled to apply for a final decree—

(a) in the case of a mortgage other than a usufructuary mortgage, a mortgage by conditional sale, or an anomalous mortgage the terms of which provide for foreclosure only and not for sale, that the mortgage property be, sold, or

(b) in the case of a mortgage by conditional sale or such an anomalous mortgage as aforesaid, that the plaintiff be debarred from all right to redeem the property.

(2) The Court may, on good cause shown and upon terms to be fixed by the Court, from time to time, at any time before the passing of a final decree for foreclosure of sale, as the case may be, extend due in respect of subsequent costs, charges, expenses and interest.

 8 . Final decree in redemption suit— (1) Where, final decree debarring the plaintiff from all right to redeem the mortgaged property has been passed or before the confirmation of a sale held in pursuance of a final decree passed under sub-rule (3) of this rule, the plaintiff makes payment into Court of all amounts due from him under sub-rule (1) of rule 7, the Court shall, on application made under by the plaintiff in this behalf, pass a final decree or, if such decree has been passed, an order—

(a) ordering the defendant to deliver up the documents referred to in the preliminary decree, and, if necessary,—

(b) ordering him to re-transfer at the cost of the plaintiff the mortgaged property as directed in the said decree,

 and also, if necessary,—

(c) ordering him to put the plaintiff in possession of the property.

(2) Where the mortgaged property or a part thereof has been sold in pursuance of a decree passed under sub-rule (3) of this rule, the Court shall not pass an order under sub-rule (1) of this rule, unless the plaintiff in addition to the amount mentioned is sub-rule (1), deposits in the Court for payment to the purchaser a sum equal to five per cent, of the amount of the purchase-money paid into by the purchaser.

Where such deposit has been made, the purchaser shall be entitled to an order for repayment of the amount of the purchase-money paid into Court by him, together with a sum equal to five per cent, thereof.

(3) Where payment in accordance with sub-rule (1) has not been made, the Court shall, on application made by the defendant in this behalf,—

(a) in the case of a mortgage by conditional sale or of such an anomalous mortgage as is hereinbefore referred to in rule 7, pass a final decree declaring that the plaintiff and all persons claiming under him are debarred from all right to redeem the mortgaged property and, also, if necessary, ordering the plaintiff to put the defendant in possession of the mortgaged property; or

(b) in the case of any other mortgage, not being a usufructuary mortgage, pass a final decree that the mortgaged property or a sufficient part thereof be sold, and the proceeds of the sale (after deduction therefrom of the expenses of the sale) be paid into Court and applied in payment of what is found due to the defendant, and the balance, if any, be paid to the plaintiff or other persons entitled to receive the same.

[369][rule 8] are found insufficient to pay the amount due to the defendant, the Court, [370][on application by him in execution], may, if the balance is legally recoverable from the plaintiff otherwise than out of the property sold, pass a decree for such balance.

 9 . Decree where nothing is found due or where mortgagee has been overpaid— Notwithstanding anything hereinbefore contained, if it appears, upon taking the account referred to in rule 7, that nothing is due to the defendant or that he has been overpaid, the Court shall pass a decree directing the defendant, if so required, to re-transfer the property and to pay to the plaintiff and amount which may be found due to him; and the plaintiff shall, if necessary, be put in possession of the mortgaged property.

 10 . Costs of mortgagee subsequent to decree— In finally adjusting the amount to be paid to a mortgagee in case of a foreclosure, sale or redemption, the Court shall, unless in the case of costs of the suit the conduct of the mortgagee has been such as to disentitle him thereto, add to the mortgage-money such costs of the suit and other costs, charges and exepenses as have been properly incurred by him since the date of the preliminary decree for foreclosure, sale or redemption up to the time of actual payment:

[371][Provided that where the mortgagor, before or at the time of the institution of the suit, tenders or deposits the amount due on the mortgage, or such amount as is not substantially deficient in the opinion  of the Court, he shall not be ordered to pay the costs of the suit to the mortgagee and the mortgagor shall be entitled to recover his own costs of the suit from the mortgagee, unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded, otherwise directs.]

 [372][10A . Power of Court to direct mortgagee to pay BImesne profits— Where in a suit for foreclosure, the mortgagor has, before or at the time of the institution of the suit, tendered or deposited the sum on the mortgage, or such sum as is not substantially deficient in the opinion of the Court, the Court shall direct  the mortgagee to pay to the mortgagor mesne profits for the period beginning with the institution of the suit.]

 11 . Payment of interest— In any decree passed in a suit for foreclosure, sale or redemption, where interest is legally recoverable, the Court may order payment of interest to the mortgagee as follows, namely:—

(a) interest up to the date on or before which payment of the amount found or declared due is under the preliminary decree to be made by the mortgagor or other person redeeming the mortgage—

(i) on the principal amount found or declared due on the mortgage,—at the rate payable on the principal, or, where such rate at the Court deems reasonable and,

(iii) on the amount adjudged due to the mortgagee for costs, charges and expenses properly incurred by the mortgagee in respect of the mortgagee-security up to the date of the preliminary decree and added to the mortgage-money,—at the rate agreed between the parties, or, failing such rate, at such rate not exceeding six per cent, per annum as the Court deems reasonable; and

(b) subsequent interest up to the date of realisation or actual payment on the aggregate of the principal sums specified in clause (a) as calculated in accordance with that clause at the such rate as the Court deems reasonable.

 12 . Sale of property subject to prior mortgage— Where any property the sale of which is directed under this Order is subject to a prior mortgage, the Court may, with the consent of the prior mortgagee, direct that the property be sold free from the same, giving to such prior mortgagee the same interest in the proceeds of the sale as he had in the property sold.

 13 . Application of proceeds— (1) Such proceeds shall be brought into Court and applied as follows:—

first, in payment of all expenses incident to the sale or properly incurred in any attempted sale;

secondly, in payment of whatever is due to the prior mortgagee on account of the prior mortgage, and of costs properly incurred in connection therewith;

thirdly, in payment of all interest due on account of the mortgage is consequence whereof the sale was directed, and of the costs of the suit in which the decree directing the sale was made;

fourthly, in payment of the principal money due on account of that mortgage; and

lastly, the residue (if any) shall be paid to the person proving himself to be interested in the property sold, or if there are more such persons than one, then to such persons according to their respective interests therein or upon their joint receipt.

(2) Nothing in this rule or in rule 12 shall be deemed to affect the powers conferred by section 57 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (4 of 1882).

 14 . Suit for sale necessary for bringing mortgaged property to sale— (1) Where a mortgagee has obtained a decree for the payment of money in satisfaction of a claim arising under the mortgage, he shall not be entitled to bring the mortgaged property to sale otherwise than by instituting a suit for sale in enforcement of the mortgage, and he may institute such suit notwithstanding anything contained in Order II, rule 2.

(2) Nothing in sub-rule (1) shall apply to any territories to which the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (4 of 1882), has not been extended.

[373][(1)] All the provisions contained in this Order which apply to a simple mortgage shall, so far as may be, apply to a mortgage by deposit of title-deeds within the meaning of section 58, and to a charge within the meaning of section 100 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (4 of 1882);

[374] [(2) Where a decree orders payment of money and charges it on immovable property on default of payment, the amount may be realised by sale of that property in execution of that decree.]

 ORDER XXXV

  INTERPLEADER

 1 . Plaint in interpleader-suit— In every suit of interpleader the plaint shall, in addition to the other statements necessary for plaints, state—

(a) that the plaintiff claims no interest in the subject-matter in dispute other than for charges or costs;

(b) the claims made by the defendants severally;  and

(c) that there is no collusion between the plaintiff and any of the defendants.

 2 . Payment of thing claimed into Court— Where the thing claimed is capable of being paid into Court or placed in the custody of the Court, the plaintiff may be required to so pay or place it before the he can be entitled to any order in the suit.

 3 . Procedure where defendant is suing plaintiff— Where any of the defendants in an interpleader-suit is actually suing the plaintiff in respect the subject-matter of such suit, the Court in which the suit against the plaintiff is pending shall, on being informed by the Court in which the interpleader-suit has been instituted, stay the proceedings as against him; and his costs in the suit so stayed may be provided for in such suit; but if, and in so far as, they are not provided for in that suit, they may be added to his costs incurred in the interpleader-suit.

 4 . Procedure at first hearing— (1) At the first hearing the Court may—

(a) declare that the plaintiff is discharged from all liability to the defendants in respect of the thing claimed, award him his costs, and dismiss him from the suit; or

(b) if it thinks that justice or convenience so require, retain all parties until the final disposal of the suit.

(2) Where the Court finds that the admissions of the parties or other evidence enable it to do so, it may adjudicate the title to the thing claimed.

(3) Where the admissions of the parties do not enable the Court so to adjudicate, it may direct—

(a) that an issue or issues between the parties be framed and tried, and

(b) that any claimant be made a plaintiff in lieu of or in addition to the original plaintiff,

 and shall proceed to try the suit in the ordinary manner.

 5 . Agents and tenants may not institute interpleader suits— Nothing in the Order shall be deemed to enable agents to sue their principles, or tenants to sue their landlords, for the purpose of compelling them to interplead with any person other than persons making claim through such principals or landlords.

 Illustrations

 (a) A deposits a box of jewels with B as his agent. C alleges that the jewels were wrongfully obtained from him by A, and claims them from B. B cannot institute an interpleader-suit against A and C.

 (b) A deposits a box of jewels with B as his agent. He then writes to C for the purpose of making the jewels a security for a debt due from himself to C. A afterwards alleges that C's debt is satisfied, and C alleges the contrary. Both claim the jewels from B. B may institute in  interpleader-suit against A and C.

 6 . Charge for plaintiff's costs— Where the suit is properly instituted the Court may provide for the costs of the original plaintiff by giving him a charge on the thing claimed or in some other effectual way.

 ORDER XXXVI

  SPECIAL CASE

 1 . Power to state case for Court's opinion— (1) Parties claiming to be interested in the decision of any question of fact or law may enter into an agreement in writing stating such question in the form of a case for the opinion of the Court, and providing that, upon the finding of the Court with respect to such question,—

(a) a sum of money fixed by the parties or to be determined by the Court shall be paid by one of the parties to the other of them; or

(b) some property, movable or immovable, specified in the agreement, shall be delivered by one of the parties to the other of them; or

(c) one or more of the parties shall do, or refrain from doing, some other particular act specified in the agreement.

(2) Every case stated under this rule shall be divided into consecutively numbered paragraphs, and shall concisely state such facts and specify such documents as may be necessary to enable the Court to decide the question raised thereby.

 2 . Where value of subject-matter must be stated— Where the agreement is for the delivery of any property; or for the doing, or the refraining from doing, any particular act, the estimated value of the property to be delivered, or to which the act specified has reference, shall be stated in the agreement.

[375][with an application] in the Court which would have jurisdiction to entertain a suit, the amount or value of the subject-matter of which is the same as the amount or value of the subject-matter of the agreement.

(2)[376]