Copyright Act, 1957

COPYRIGHT ACT, 1957 



[Act No. 14 of 1957]1*
[4th June, 1957]

PREAMBLE

An Act So amend and consolidate the law relating to copyright.

BE it enacted by Parliament in the Eighth Year of the Republic of India as follows:-

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1. The Act has been extended to Goa, Daman and Diu Reg. 12 of 1962, sec. 3 and Sch.; to Dadra and Nagar Haveli by Reg. 6 of 1963, sec. 2 and Sch. 1; to Pondicherry by Reg. 7 of 1963, sec. 3 and Sch. I; and brought into force in the State of Sikkim  w.e.f. 27-4-1979 vide Notification No. S.O. 226 (E), dated 27th April, 1979, Gazette of India, Extra. Pt. II, sec. 3 (ii), p. 430.

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Section -1 Short title, extent and commencement

(1) This Act may be called the Copyright Act, 1957.

(2) It extends to the whole of India.

(3) It shall come into force on such date 1*the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.

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1 Came into force on 21-1-1958 vide S.R.O. 269, dated 21st January, 1958, Gazette of India, Extra. Pt. II, sec. 3, p. 167
 
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Section -2 Interpretation

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,-

(a) "Adaptation" means,-

(i) In relation to a dramatic work, the conversion of the work into a non-dramatic work;

(ii) In relation to a literary work or an artistic work, the conversion of the work into a dramatic work by way of performance in public or otherwise;

(iii) In relation to a literary or dramatic work, any abridgement of the work or any version of the work in which the story or action in conveyed wholly or mainly by means of pictures in a form suitable for reproduction in a book, or in a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical; 1[ **]

(iv) In relation to a musical work, any arrangement or transcription of the work;[and]

2*[(v) In relation to any work, any use of such work involving its rearrangement or alteration;]

(b) 3*["work of architecture"] means any building or structure having as artistic character or design, or any model for such building or structure;

(c) "Artistic work" means,-

(i) A painting, a sculpture, a drawing (including a diagram, map, chart or plan), an engraving or a photograph, whether or not any such work possesses artistic quality;

(ii) A 4*[work of architecture]; and

(iii) Any other work of artistic craftsmanship;

(d) "Author" means,-

(i) In relation to a literary or dramatic work, the author of the work;

(ii) In relation to a musical work, the composer;

(iii) In relation to an artistic work other than a photograph, the artist;

(iv) In relation to a photograph, the person taking the photograph;

5*[(v) In relation to a cinematograph film or sound recording, the producer; and

(vi) In relation to any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work which is computer-generated, the person who causes the work to be created;]

6*[(dd) "Broadcast" means communication to the public-

(i) By any means of wireless diffusion, whether in any one or more of the forms of signs, sounds or visual images; or

(ii) By wire, and includes a re-broadcast;]

(e) "Calendar year" means the year commencing on the 1st day of January;

7[(f) "Cinema to graph film" means any work of visual recording 23[***] produced through a process from which a moving image may be 23[***] and includes a sound recording accompanying such visual recording and "cinematograph" shall be construed as including any work produced by any process analogous to cinematography including video films;]

24*[(fa) "Commercial rental" does not include the rental, lease or lending of a lawfully acquired copy of a computer programme, sound recording, visual recording or cinema to graph film for non-profit purposes by a non-profit library or non-profit educational institution.';

Explanation.-For the purposes of this clause, a "non-profit library or non-profit educational institution" means a library or educational institution which receives grants from the Government or exempted from payment of tax under the Income-tax Act, 1961.(43 of 1961)]

25*[(ff) "Communication to the public" means making any work or performance available for being seen or heard or otherwise enjoyed by the public directly or by any means of display or diffusion other than by issuing physical copies of it, whether simultaneously or at places and times chosen individually, regardless of whether any member of the public actually sees, hears or otherwise enjoys the work or performance so made available.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this clause, communication through satellite or cable or any other means of simultaneous communication to more than one household or place of residence including residential rooms of any hotel or hostel shall be deemed to be communication to the public;]

(ffa) "Composer", in relation to a musical work, means the person who composes the music regardless of whether he records it in any form of graphical notation;

(ffb) "Computer" includes any electronic or similar device having information processing capabilities;

(ffc) "Computer programe" means a set of instructions expressed in words, codes, schemes or in any other form, including a machine readable medium, capable of causing a computer to perform a particular task or achieve a particular result;

(ffd) "Copyright society" means a society registered under sub-section (3) of section 33;]

(g) "Delivery", in relation to a lecture, includes delivery by means of any mechanical instrument or by 9*[broadcast];

(h) "Dramatic work" includes any piece of recitation, choreographic work or entertainment in dumb show, the scenic arrangement or acting, form of which is fixed in writing or otherwise but docs not include a cinematograph film;

10*[(hh) "Duplicating equipment" means any mechanical contrivance or device used or intended to he used for making copies of any work;]

(i) "Engravings" include etchings, lithographs, wood-cuts, prints and other similar works, not being photographs;

(j) "Exclusive licence" means a licence which confers on the licensee or on the licensee and persons authorized by him, to the exclusion of all other persons (including the owner of the copyright) any right comprised in the copyright in a work, and "exclusive licensee" shall be construed accordingly;

(k) "Government work" means a work which is made or published by or under the direction or control of-

(i) The Government or any department of the Government;

(ii) Any Legislature in India;

(iii) Any Court, Tribunal or other judicial authority in India;

11*[(l) "Indian work" means a literary, dramatic or musical work,-

(i) The author of which is a citizen of India; or

(ii) Which is first published in India; or

(iii) The author of which, in the case of an unpublished work is, at the time of the making of the work, a citizen of India;]

12*[(m) "Infringing copy" means,-

(i) In relation to a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work, a reproduction thereof otherwise than in the form of a cinematographic film;

(ii) In relation to a cinematographic film, a copy of the film made on any medium by any means;

(iii) In relation to a sound recording, any other recording embodying the same sound recording, made by any means;

(iv) In relation to a programe or performance in which such a broadcast reproduction right or a performer's right subsists under the provisions of this Act, the sound recording or a cinematographic film of such programe or performance, if such reproduction, copy or sound recording is made or imported in contravention of the provisions of this Act;]

(n) "Lecture" includes address, speech and sermon;

13*[(o) "Literary work" includes computer programes, (abies and compilations including computer14[databases);]

13*[(p) "Musical work" means a work consisting of music and includes any graphical notation of such work but does not include any words or any action intended to be sung, spoken or performed with the music;]

13*[(q) "Performance", in relation to performer's right, means any visual or acoustic presentation made live by one or more performers;]

13*[(qq) "Performer" includes an actor, singer, musician, dancer, acrobat, juggler, conjurer, snake charmer, a person delivering a lecture or any other person who makes a performance;]

24*[Provided that in a cinematograph film a person whose performance is casual or incidental in nature and, in the normal course of the practice of the industry, is not acknowledged anywhere including in the credits of the film shall not be treated as a performer except for the purpose of clause (b) of section 38B;]
15[***]

(s) "Photograph" includes photo-lithograph and any work produced by any process analogous to photography but does not include any part of a cinema to graph film;

(t) "Plate" includes any stereotype or other plate, stone, block, mould, matrix, transfer, negative16*[duplicating equipment] or other device used or intended to be used for printing or reproducing copies of any work, and any matrix or other appliance by which 17*[sound recording] for the acoustic presentation of the work are or are intended to be made;

(u) "Prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

18*[(uu) ''Producer", in relation to a cinematograph film or sound recording, means a person who lakes the initiative and responsibility for making the work;]

(v) 19[***]

(w) 20[***]

21[(x) "Reprography" means the making of copies of a work, by photocopying or similar means;

24*[(xa) "Rights Management Information" means,-

(a) The title or other information identifying the work or performance;

(b) The name of the author or performer;

(c) The name and address of the owner of rights;

(d) Terms and conditions regarding the use of the rights; and

(e) Any number or code that represents the information referred to in sub-clauses (a) to (d),but does not include any device or procedure intended to identify the user;]

(xx) "Sound recording" means a recording of sounds from which such sounds may be produced regardless of the medium on which such recording is the method by which the sounds are produced;]

24*[(xxa) "Visual recording" means the recording in any medium, by any method including the storing of it by any electronic means, of moving images or of the representations thereof, from which they can be perceived, reproduced or communicated by any method;]

(y) "Work" means any of the following works, namely:-

(i) A literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work;

(ii) A cinema to graph film;

(iii) A 22*[sound recording];

(z) "Work of joint authorship" means a work produced by the collaboration of two or more authors in which the contribution of one author is not distinct from the contribution of the other author or authors;

(za) "Work of sculpture" includes casts and models.

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1. The word "and" omitted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 w.e.f. 10-5-1995

2. Inserted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

3. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 for "architectural work of artEw.e.f. 10-5-1995.

4. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for "architectural work of artEw.e.f. 10-5-1995.

5. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for sub-clauses (v) and (vi) w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

6. Inserted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 3 w.e.f. 9-8-1984.
7. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for clause (f) w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

8. Inserted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 3 w.e.f. 9-8-1984 and Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

9. Substituted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 2, for "radio-diffusion w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

10. Inserted by Act 65 of 1984 sec. 2 w.e.f. 8-10-1984.

11. Substituted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 3, for clause (1) w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

12. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for clause (m) w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

13. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

14. Substituted by Act 49 of 1999, sec. 2, for "data basis w.e.f. 15-1-2000.

15. Clause (r ) omitted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

16. Inserted by Act 65 of 1984, sec. 2 w.e.f. 8-10-1984.

17. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 (xii), for "record w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

18. Inserted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

19. Clause (v) omitted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 3 w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

20. Clause (w) omitted by Act 38 of 1983, sec. 2 w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

21. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for clause (x) w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

22. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 for "record w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

23. Omitted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : - "on any medium" and "produced by any means"

24. Inserted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012.

25. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -

"8[(ff) "communication to the public" means making any work available for being seen or heard or otherwise enjoyed by the public directly or by any means of display or diffusion other than by issuing copies of such work regardless of whether any member of the public actually sees, hears or otherwise enjoys the work so made available.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this clause, communication through satellite or cable or any other means of simultaneous communication to more than one household or place of residence including residential rooms of any hotel or hostel shall be deemed to be communication to the public;"

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Section -3 1*Meaning of publication

For the purposes of this Act, "publication" means making a work available to the public by issue of copies or by communicating the work to the public.]

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1. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 3 for section 3 w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

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Section -4  When work not deemed to be published or performed in public

Except in relation to infringement of copyright, a work shall not be deemed to be published or performed in public, if published, or performed in public, without the licence of the owner of the copyright.

 


Section -5 When work deemed to be first published in India

For the purposes of this Act, a work published in India shall he deemed to be first published in India, notwithstanding that it has been published simultaneously in some other country, unless such other country provides a shorter term of copyright for such work; and a work shall be deemed to be published simultaneously in India and in another country if the time between the publication in India and the publication in such other country does not exceed thirty days or such other period as the Central Government may, in relation to any specified country, determine.


Section -6 1* Certain disputes to be decided by Copyright Board

If any question arises-

(a) Whether a work has been published or as to the date on which a work was published for the purposes of Chapter V, or

(b) Whether the term of copyright for any work is shorter in any other country than that provided in respect of that work under this Act, shall he referred to the Copyright Board constituted under section 11 whose decision thereon shall be final:

Provided that if in the opinion of the Copyright Board, the issue of copies or communication to the public referred to in section 3 was of an insignificant nature, it shall not be deemed to he publication for the purposes of that section.]
 
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1. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 4, for section 6w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

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Section -7 Nationality of author where the making of unpublished work is extended over considerable period

Where, in the case of an unpublished work, the making of the work is extended over a considerable period, the author of the work shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be a citizen of, or domiciled in, that country of which he was a citizen or wherein he was domiciled during any substantial part of that period.


Section -8 Domicile of corporations

For the purposes of this Act, a body corporate shall be deemed to be domiciled in India if it is incorporated under any law in force in India.

 


Section -9 Copyright Office

(1 ) There shall be established for the purposes of this Act an office to be called the Copyright Office.

(2 ) The Copyright Office shall be under the immediate control of the Registrar of Copyrights who shall act under the superintendence and direction of the Central Government.

(3 ) There shall be a seal for the Copyright Office.


Section -10 Registrar and Deputy Registrars of Copyrights

(1) The Central Government shall appoint a Registrar of Copyrights and may appoint one or more Deputy Registrars of Copyrights.

(2) A Deputy Registrar of Copyrights shall discharge under the superintendence and direction of the Registrar of Copyrights such functions of the Registrar under this Act as the Registrar may, from time to time, assign to hi m; and any reference in this Act to the Registrar of Copyrights shall include a reference to a Deputy Registrar of Copyrights when so discharging any such functions.

 


Section -11 Copyright Board

(1) As soon as maybe after the commencement of this Act, the Central Government shall constitute a Board to be called the Copyright Board which shall consist of a Chairman and 3*[two other members].

4*[(2) The salaries and allowances payable to and the other terms and conditions of service of the Chairman and other members of the Copyright Board shall be such as may be prescribed:

Provided that neither the salary and allowances nor the other terms and conditions of service of the Chairman or any other member shall be varied to his disadvantage after appointment.]

(3) The Chairman of the Copyright Board shall be a person who is, or has been, a Judge of 2[***] a High Court or is qualified for appointment as a Judge of High Court.

5*[(4) The Central Government may, after consultation with the Chairman of the Copyright Board, appoint aSecretary to the Copyright Board and such other officers and employees as may be considered necessary for the efficient discharge of the functions of the Copyright Board.]
 
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1. Substituted by Act 38 of1994, sec. 5 for "eight" w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

2. The words "the Supreme Court or" omitted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 5 w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

3. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following: -
"not less than two or more than 1[fourteen] other members"
4. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following :-
"(2) The Chairman and other members of the Copyright Board shall hold office for such period and on such terms and conditions as may be prescribed. "

5. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following :-
"(4) The Registrar of Copyrights shall be the Secretary of the Copyright Board and shall perform such functions as may be prescribed. "

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Section -12 Powers and procedure of Copyright Board

(1) The Copyright Board shall, subject to any rules that may be under this Act, have power to regulate its own procedure, including the fixing of places and times of its sittings:

Provided that the Copyright Board shall ordinarily hear any proceeding instituted before it under this Act within the zone in which, at the time of the institution of the proceeding, the person instituting the proceeding actually and voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally work for gain.

Explanation.-In this sub-section "zone" means a zone specified in section 15 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 (37 of 1956).

(2) The Copyright Board may exercise and discharge its powers and functions through Benches constituted by the Chairman of the Copyright Board from amongst its 5*[members"]:

1*[Provided that, if the Chairman is of opinion that any matter of importance is required to be heard by a larger Bench, he may refer the matter to a special Bench consisting of five members.]

(3) If there is a difference of opinion among the members of the Copyright Board or any Bench thereof in respect of any matter coming before it for decision under this Act, the opinion of the majority shall prevail:

2*[Provided that where there is no such majority, the opinion of the Chairman shall prevail.]

(4) 3*[The Chairman] may authorise any of its members to exercise any of the powers conferred on it by section 74 and any order made or act done in exercise of those powers by the member so authorised shall be deemed to be the order or act, as the case may be, of the Board.

(5) No member of the Copyright Board shall take part in any proceedings before the Board in respect of any matter in which he has a personal interest.

(6) No act done or proceeding taken by the Copyright Board under this Act shall be questioned on the ground merely of the existence of any vacancy in, or defect in the constitution of, the Board,

(7) The Copyright Board shall be deemed to be a Civil Court for the purposes of 4*[sections 345 and 346 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974)] and all proceedings before the Board shall be deemed to be judicial proceedings within the meaning of sections 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (45 of 1860).

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1. Inserted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 6, w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

2. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 6, for proviso w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

3. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 6, for "The Copyright Board" w.e.f.10-5-1995.

4. Substituted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 6 for "sections 480 and 482 of the Code Criminal Procedure, 1898 (5 of1898)" w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

5. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : - "members, each Bench consisting of not less than three members"

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Section -13 Works in which copyright subsists

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section and the other provisions of this Act, copyright shall subsist throughout India in the following classes of works, that is to say,-

(a) Original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works;

(b) Cinema to graph films; and

(c) 1*[sound recording],

(2) Copyright shall not subsist in any work specified in sub-section (1), other than a work to which the provisions of section 40 or section 41 apply, unless,-

(i) In the case of a published work, the work is first published in India, or where the work is first published outside India, the author is at the date of such publication, or in a case where the author was dead at that date, was at the time of his death, a citizen of India;

(ii) In the case of an unpublished work other than 2*[work of architecture], the author is at the date of the making of the work a citizen of India or domiciled in India; and

(iii) In the case of [work of architecture], the work is located in India.

Explanation.-In the case of a work of joint authorship, the conditions conferring copyright specified in this sub-section shall be satisfied by all the authors of the work.

(3) Copyright shall not subsist-

(a) In any cinematograph film if a substantial part of the film is an infringement of the copyright in any other work;

(b) In any 3*[sound recording] made in respect of a literary, dramatic or musical work, if in making the 3*[sound recording], copyright in such work has been infringed.

(4) The copyright in a cinematograph film or a 3*[sound recording] shall not affect the separate copyright in any work in respect of which or a substantial part of which, the film, or, as the case may be, the 3*[sound recording] is made.

(5) In the case of 2*[work of architecture], copyright shall subsist only in the artistic character and design and shall not extend to processes or methods of construction.
 
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1. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, "for record" w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

2. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 for "architectural work of art" w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

3. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2 , "for record "w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

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Section -14 1* Meaning of Copyright

Act, "copyright" means the exclusive right subject to the provisions of this Act, to do or authorise the doing of any of the following acts in respect of a work or any substantial part thereof, namely:-

(a) In the case of a literary, dramatic or musical work, not being a computer programme,-

(i) To reproduce the work in any material form including the storing of it in any medium by electronic means;

(ii) To issue copies of the work to the public not being copies already in circulation;

(iii) To perform the work in public, or communicate it to the public;

(iv) To make any cinema to graph film or sound recording in respect of the work;

(v) To make any translation of the work;

(vi) To make any adaptation of the work;

(vii) To do, in relation to a translation or an adaptation of the work, any of the acts specified in relation to the work in sub-clauses (i) to (vi);

(b) In the case of a computer programme,-

(i) To do any of the acts specified in clause (a);

2*[(ii) To sell or give on commercial rental or offer for sale or for commercial rental any copy of the computer programme:

Provided that such commercial rental does not apply in respect of computer programmes where the programme itself is not the essential object of the rental.]

(c) In the case of an artistic work,-

3*[(i) To reproduce the work in any material form including-

(A) The storing of it in any medium by electronic or other means; or

(B) Depiction in three-dimensions of a two-dimensional work; or

(C) Depiction in two-dimensions of a three-dimensional work;]

(ii) To communicate the work to the public;

(iii) To issue copies of the work to the public not being copies already in circulation;

(iv) To include the work in any cinema to graph film;

(v) To make any adaptation of the work;

(vi) To do in relation to an adaptation of the work any of the acts specified in relation to the work in sub-clauses (i) to (iv);

(d) In the case of a cinema to graph film,-

4*[(i) To make a copy of the film, including-

(A) A photograph of any image forming part thereof; or

(B) Storing of it in any medium by electronic or other means;]

5*[(ii) To sell or give on commercial rental or offer for sale or for such rental, any copy of the film;]

(iii) To communicate the film to the public;

(e) In the case of a sound recording,-

(i) To make any other sound recording embodying it 6[including storing of it in any medium by electronic or other means];

7*[(ii) To sell or give on commercial rental or offer for sale or for such rental, any copy of the sound recording;]

(iii) To communicate the sound recording to the public.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this section, a copy which has been sold once shall be deemed to be a copy already in circulation.]

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1. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 7, for section 14 w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

2. Substituted by Act 49 of 1999, sec. 3, for sub-clause (ii) w.e.f. 15-1-2000.

3. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -
"(i) to reproduce the work in any material form including depiction in three dimensions of a two dimensional work or in two dimensions of a three dimensional work;"

4. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -
"(i) to make a copy of the film including a photograph of any image forming part thereof;"

5. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -
"(ii) to sell or give on lure or offer for sale or hire, any copy of the film, regardless of whether such copy has been sold or given on hire on earlier occasions;
"
6. Inserted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012.

7. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -
"(ii) 10 sell or give on hire, or offer for sale or hire, any copy of the sound recording, regardless of whether such copy has been sold or given on hire on earlier occasions; "
 
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Section -15 Special provision regarding copyright in designs registered or capable of being registered under the Designs Act, 1911

1 [***]2[Designs Act, 2000].-

(1 ) Copyright shall not subsist under this Act in any design which is registered under the 1 [***] 2*[Designs Act, 2000 (16 of 2000)].

(2 ) Copyright in any design, which is capable of being registered under the 1 [***] 2*[Designs Act, 2000 (16 of 2000)], but which has not been so registered, shall cease as soon as any article to which the design has been applied has been reproduced more than fifty times by an industrial process by the owner of the copyright, or, with his licence, by any other person.
 
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1. The words "Indian Patents and" omitted by Act 23 of1983, sec. 7 w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

2. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : - "Designs Act, 1911 (2 of 1911)"
 
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Section -16 No copyright except as provided in this Act

No person shall be entitled to copyright or any similar right in any work, whether published or unpublished, otherwise than under and in accordance with the provisions of this Act or of any other for the time being in force, but nothing in this section shall be construed as abrogating any right or jurisdiction to restrain a breach of trust or confidence.


Section -17 First owner of copyright

Subject to the provisions of this Act, the author of a work shall be the owner of the copyright therein:

Provided that-

(a) In the case of a literary, dramatic or artistic work made by the author in the course of his employment by the proprietor of a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical under a contract of service or apprenticeship, for the purpose of publication in a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical, the said proprietor shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright in the work in so far as the copyright relates to the publication of the work in any newspaper, magazine or similar periodical, or to the reproduction of the work for the purpose of its being so published, but in all other respects the author shall be the first owner of the copyright in the work;

(b) Subject to the provisions of clause (a), in the case of a photograph taken, or a painting or portrait drawn, or an engraving or a cinema to graph film made, for valuable consideration at the instance of any person, such person shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright therein;

(c) In the case of a work made in the course of the author's employment under a contract of service or apprenticeship, to which clause (a) or clause (b) does not apply, the employer shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright therein;

1*[(cc) In case of any address or speech delivered in public, the person who has delivered such address or speech or if such person has delivered such address or speech on behalf of any other person, such other person shall be the first owner of the copyright therein notwithstanding that the person who delivers such address or speech, or, as the case may be, the person on whose behalf such address or speech is delivered, is employed by any other person who arranges such address or speech or on whose behalf or premises such address or speech is delivered;]

(d) In the case of a Government work, Government shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright therein;

1*[(dd) In the case of a work made or first published by or under the direction or control of any public undertaking, such public undertaking shall, in the absence of any agreement to the contrary, be the first owner of the copyright therein;

Explanation.-For the purposes of this clause and section 28A, "public undertaking" means-

(i) An undertaking owned or controlled by Government; or

(ii) A Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 (1 of 1956); or

(iii) A body corporate established by or under any Central, Provincial or State Act;]

(e) In the case of a work to which the provisions of section 41 apply, the international organisation concerned shall be the first owner of the copyright therein.

2*[Provided that in case of any work incorporated in a cinema to graph work, nothing contained in clauses (b) and (c) shall affect the right of the author in the work referred to in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 13;]

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1. Inserted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 8 w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

2. Inserted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012.
 
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Section -18 Assignment of copyright

(1) The owner of the copyright in an existing work or the prospective owner of the copyright in a future work may assign to any person the copyright either wholly or partially and either generally or subject to limitations and either for the whole of the copyright or any part thereof:

Provided that in the case of the assignment of copyright in any future work, the assignment shall take effect only when the work comes into existence.

1*[Provided further that no such assignment shall be applied to any medium or mode of exploitation of the work which did not exist or was not in commercial use at the time when the assignment was made, unless the assignment specifically referred to such medium or mode of exploitation of the work:

Provided also that the author of the literary or musical work included in a cinema to graph film shall not assign or waive the right to receive royalties to be shared on an equal basis with the assignee of copyright for the utilisation of such work in any form other than for the communication to the public of the work along with the cinema to graph film in a cinema hall, except to the legal heirs of the authors or to a copyright society for collection and distribution and any agreement to contrary shall be void:

Provided also that the author of the literary or musical work included in the sound recording but not forming part of any cinematograph film shall not assign or waive the right to receive royalties to be shared on an equal basis with the assignee of copyright for any utilisation of such work except to the legal heirs of the authors or to a collecting society for collection and distribution and any assignment to the contrary shall be void.]

(2) Where the assignee of a copyright becomes entitled to any right comprised in the copyright, the assignee as respects the rights so assigned, and the assignor as respects the rights not assigned, shall be treated for the purposes of this Act as the owner of copyright and the provisions of this Act shall have effect accordingly.

(3) In this section, the expression "assignee" as respects the assignment of the copyright in any future work includes the legal representatives of the assignee, if the assignee dies before the work comes into existence.
 
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1. Inserted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012.
 
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Section -19 Mode of assignment

1[(1)] No assignment of the copyright in any work shall be valid unless it is in writing signed by the assignor or by his duly authorised agent.

2*[3*[ (2) The assignment of copyright in any work shall identify such work, and shall specify the rights assigned and the duration and territorial extent of such assignment.

(3) The assignment of copyright in any work shall also specify the amount of 4*[royalty and any other consideration payable], to the author or his legal heirs during the currency of the assignment and the assignment shall be subject to revision, extension or termination on terms mutually agreed upon by the parties.

(4) Where the assignee does not exercise the right assigned to him under any of the other sub-sections of this section within period of one year from the date of assignment, the assignment in respect of such rights shall be deemed to have lapsed after the expiry of the said period unless otherwise specified in the assignment.

(5) If the period of assignment is not stated, it shall be deemed to be five years from the dale of assignment.

(6) If the territorial extent of assignment of the rights is not specified, it shall be presumed to extend within India.

(7) Nothing in sub-section (2)or sub-section (3) or sub-section (4) or sub-section (5) or sub-section (6)shall be applicable to assignments made before the coming into force of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1994.]]

5*[(8) The assignment of copyright in any work contrary to the terms and conditions of the rights already assigned to a copyright society in which the author of the work is a member shall be void.

(9) No assignment of copyright in any work to make a cinema to graph film shall affect the right of the author of the work to claim an equal share of royalties and consideration payable in case of utilisation of the work in any form other than for the communication to the public of the work, along with the cinema to graph film in a cinema hall.

(10) No assignment of the copyright in any work to make a sound recording which does not form part of any cinema to graph film shall affect the right of the author of the work to claim an equal share of royalties and consideration payable for any utilisation of such work in any form.]
 
19A -6* Disputes with respect to assignment of copyright

(1) If an assignee fails to make sufficient exercise of the rights assigned to him, and such failure is not attributable to any act or omission of the assignor, then the Copyright Board  may, on receipt of complaint from the assignor and after holding such enquiry as it may deem necessary, revoke such assignment.

(2) If any dispute arises with respect to the assignment of any copyright, the Copyright Board may, on receipt of a complaint from the aggrieved party  and after holding such inquiry as it considers necessary, pass such order as it may deem fit including an order for the recovery of any royalty payable:

Provided that Copyright Board shall not pass any order under the sub-section to revoke the assignment  unless it is satisfied that the terms of assignment are harsh to the assignor in case the assignor is also the author:

7*[Provided further that, pending the disposal of an application for revocation of assignment under this sub-section, the Copyright Board may pass such order, as it deems fit regarding implementation of the terms and conditions of assignment including any consideration to be paid for the enjoyment of the rights assigned:-

Provided also that] no order of revocation of assignment  under this sub-section, shall be made within a period of five years from the date of such assignment.]

8*[(3) Every complaint received under sub-section (2) shall be dealt with by the Copyright Board as far as possible and efforts shall be made to pass the final order in the matter within a period of six months from the date of receipt of the complaint and any delay in compliance of the same, the Copyright Board shall record the reasons thereof.]

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1.  Section 19 re-numbered as sub-section (1) thereof by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 9 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

2.  Sub-section (2) Inserted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 9 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984).

3.  Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, Sec. 8, for sub-section (2) (w.e.f. 10-9-1995.)

4. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : - "royalty payable, if any"

5. Inserted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012.

6. Inserted by Act 23 of 1983, sec.10 w.e.f. 9-8-1984 and Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 9 w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

7. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -"Provided further that"

8. Inserted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012.

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Section -20 Transmission of copyright in manuscript by testamentary disposition

Where under a bequest a person is entitled to the manuscript of a literary, dramatic or musical work, or to an artistic work, and the work was not published before the death of the testator, the bequest shall, unless the contrary intention is indicated in the testator's will or any codicil thereto, be construed as including the copyright in the work in so far as the testator was the owner of the copyright immediately before his death.

Explanation.-In this section, the expression "manuscript" means the original document embodying the work, whether written by hand or not.

 


Section -21 Right of author to relinquish copyright

(1) The author of a work may relinquish all or any of the rights comprised in the copyright in the work by giving notice in the prescribed form to 1*[the Registrar of Copyrights or by way of public notice] and thereupon such rights shall, subject to the provisions of sub-section (3), cease to exist from the date of the notice.

(2) On receipt of a notice under sub-section (1), the Registrar of Copyrights shall cause it to be published in the Official Gazette and in such other manner as he may deem fit.

2*[(2A) The Registrar of Copyrights shall, within fourteen days from the publication of the notice in the Official Gazette, post the notice on the official website of the Copyright Office so as to remain in the public domain for a period of not less than three years.]

(3) The relinquishment of all or any of the rights comprised in the copyright in a work shall not affect any rights subsisting in favour of any person on the date of the no lice referred to in sub-section (1).
 
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1. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : - "the Registrar of Copyrights"

2. Inserted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012.
 
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Section -22 Term of copyright in published literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works

Except as otherwise hereinafter provided, copyright shall subsist in any literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work 2[***] published within the lifetime of the author until 1*[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the author dies.

Explanation.-In this section the reference to the author shall, in the case of a work of joint authorship, be construed as a reference to the author who dies last.

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1. Substituted by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for "fifty years" w.r.e.f. 28-12-1991.

2. Omitted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -"(other than a photograph)"
 
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Section -23 Term of copyright in anonymous and pseudonymous works

(1) In the case of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work (other than a photograph), which is published anonymously or pseudonymously, copyright shall subsist until 1*[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the work is first published:

Provided that where the identity of the author is disclosed before the expiry of the said period, copyright shall subsist until 1*[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year following the year in which the author dies.

(2) In sub-section (1),references to the author shall, in the case of an anonymous work of joint authorship, be construed,-

(a) Where the identity of the authors is disclosed, as references to that author;

(b) Where the identity of more authors than one is disclosed, as references to the author who dies last from amongst such authors.

(3) In sub-section (1),references to the author shall, in the case of a pseudonymous work of joint authorship, be construed,-

(a) Where the names of one or more (but not all) of the authors arc pseudonymous and his or their identity is not disclosed, as references to the author whose name is not a pseudonym, or, if the names of two or more of the authors are not pseudonyms, as references to such of those authors who dies last;

(b) Where the names of one or more (but not all) of the authors arc pseudonyms and the identity of one or more of them is disclosed, as references to the author who dies last from amongst the authors whose names arc not pseudonyms and the authors whose names are pseudonyms and are disclosed; and

(c) Where the names of all the authors arc pseudonyms and the identity of one of them is disclosed, as references to the author whose identity is disclosed or if the identity of two or more of such authors is disclosed, as references to such of those authors who dies last.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this section, the identity of an author shall be deemed to have been disclosed, if either the identity of the author is disclosed publicly by both the author and the publisher or is otherwise established to the satisfaction of the Copyright Board by that author.
  
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Substituted by Act 13 of 1992, Sec. 2, for "fifty years" (w.e.f. 28-12-1991).

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Section -24 Term of copyright in posthumous work

(1) In the case of a literary, dramatic or musical work or an engraving, in which copyright subsists at the date of the death of the author, or in the case of any such work of joint authorship, at or immediately before the date of the death of the author who dies last, but which, or any adaptation of which, has not been published before that date, copyright shall subsist until1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the work is first published or, where an adaptation of the work is published in any earlier year, from the beginning of the calendar year next following that year.

(2) For the purposes of this section a literary, dramatic or musical work or an adaptation of any such work shall be deemed to have been published, if it has been performed in public or if any 1[sound recording] made in respect of the work have been sold to the public or have been offered for sale to the public.

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1. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for "record" w.e.f. 10-5-1995.
  
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Section -25 1*Term of copyright in photographs

2[***] 
     
 
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1. Substituted by Act 13 of 1992, sec.2, for "fifty years" w.r.e.f. 28-12-1991.

2. Omitted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -
"In the case of a photograph, copyright shall subsist until 1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the photograph is published."

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Section -26 Term of copyright in cinema to graph films

In the case of a cinema to graph film, copyright shall subsist until sixty years from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the film is published.


Section -27 Term of copyright in sound recording

In the case a 1*[sound recording] copyright shall subsist until 2*[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the 1*[sound recording] is published.

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1. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, sec. 2, for "record" w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

2. Substituted by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for "fifty years" w.r.e.f. 28-12-1991.

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Section -28 Term of copyright in Government works

In the case of Government work, where Government is the first owner of the copyright therein, copyright shall subsist until 1*[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the record is first published.

28A - 2*Term of copyright in works of public undertakings

In the case of a work, where a public undertaking is the first owner of the copyright therein, copyright shall subsist until 1[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar years next following the year in which the work is first published.]
 
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1. Substituted by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for "fifty years" w.r.e.f. 28-12-1991.

2. Inserted by Act 23 of 1983, sec. 11 w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

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Section -29 Term of copyright in works of international organisations

In the case of a work of any international organisation to which the provisions of section 41 apply, copyright shall subsist until 1*[sixty years] from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the work is first published.
   
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1. Substituted by Act 13 of 1992, sec. 2, for "fifty years" w.r.e.f. 28-12-1991.

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Section -30 Licences by owners of copyright

The owner of the copyright in any existing work of the prospective owner of the copyright in any future work may grant any interest in the right by licence in 1*[writing by him] or by his duly authorised agent:

Provided that in the case of a licence relating to copyright in any future work, the licence shall take effect only when the work comes into existence.

Explanation.-Where a person to whom a licence relating to copyright in any future work is granted under this section dies before the work comes into existence, his legal representatives shall, in the absence of any provision to the contrary in the licence, be entitled to the benefit of the licence.
 
30A - 2*Application of sections 19 and 19A

The provisions of 3*[sections 19] shall, with any necessary adaptations and modifications, apply in relation to a licence under section 30 as they apply in relation to assignment of copyright in a work.]
 
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1. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -"writing signed by him"

2. Inserted by Act 38 of 1994, section 10 w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

3. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -"sections 19 and 19A"

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Section -31 Compulsory licence in works withheld from public

(1) If at any time during the term of copyright in 3*[any work] which has been published or performed in public, a complaint is made to the Copyright Board that the owner of copyright in the work-

(a) Has refused to re-publish or allow the re-publication of the work or has refused to allow the performance in public of the work, and by reason of such refusal the work is withheld from the public; or

(b) Has refused to allow communication to the public by 1* [broadcast], of such work or in the case of a 2*[sound recording] the work recorded in such 2*[sound recording], on terms which the complainant considers reasonable, the Copyright Board, after giving to the owner of the copyright in the work a reasonable opportunity of being heard and after holding such inquiry as it may deem necessary, may, if it is satisfied that the grounds for such refusal are not reasonable, direct the Registrar of Copyrights to grant to the complainant a licence to re-publish the work, perform the work in public or communicate the work to the public by 1*[broadcast], as the case may be, subject to payment to the owner of the copyright of such compensation and subject to such other terms and conditions as the Copyright Board may determine; and there upon the Registrar of Copyrights shall grant the 4*[licence to such person or persons who, in the opinion of the Copyright Board, is or are qualified to do so] in accordance with the directions of Copyright Board, on payment of such fee as may be prescribed.

5[***]

6[***]
 
31A - 7*Compulsory licence in unpublished Indian works

8*[(1) Where, in the case of any unpublished work or any work published or communicated to the public and the work is withheld from the public in India, the author is dead or unknown or cannot be traced, or the owner of the copyright in such work cannot be found, any person may apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to publish or communicate to the public such work or a translation thereof in any language.]

(2) Before making an application under sub-section (1), the applicant shall publish his proposal in one issue of a daily newspaper in the English language having circulation in the major part of the country and where the application is for the publication of a translation in any language, also in one issue of any daily newspaper in that language.

(3) Every such application shall be made in such form as may be prescribed and shall be accompanied with a copy of the advertisement issued under sub-section (2) and such fee as may be prescribed.

(4) Where an application is made to the Copyright Board under this section, it may, after holding such inquiry as may be prescribed, direct the Registrar of Copyrights to grant to the applicant a licence to publish the work or a translation thereof in the language mentioned in the application subject to the payment of such royalty and subject to such other terms and conditions as the Copyright Board may determine, and thereupon the Registrar of Copyrights shall grant the licence to the applicant in accordance with the direction of the Copyright Board.

(5) Where a licence is granted under this section, the Registrar of Copyrights may, by order, direct the applicant to deposit the amount of the royalty determined by the Copyright Board in the public account of India or in any other account specified by the Copyright Board so as to enable the owner of the copyright or, as the case maybe, his heirs, executors or the legal representatives to claim such royalty at any time.

(6) Without prejudice to the foregoing provisions of this section, in the case of a work referred to in sub-section (1), if the original author is dead, the Central Government may, if it considers that the publication of the work is desirable in the national interest, require the heirs, executors or legal representatives of the author to publish such work within such period as may be specified by it.

(7) Where any work is not published within the period specified by the Central Government under sub-section (6), the Copyright Board may, on an application made by any person for permission to publish the work and after hearing the parties concerned, permit such publication on payment of such royally as the Copyright Board may, in the circumstances of such case, determine in the prescribed manner.]
 
31B - Compulsory licence for benefit of disabled

9*[(1) Any person working for the benefit of persons with disability on a profit basis or for business may apply to the Copyright Board, in such form and manner and accompanied by such fee as may be prescribed, for a compulsory licence to publish any work in which copyright subsists for the benefit of such persons, in a case to which clause (zb) of sub-section (1) of section 52 does not apply and the Copyright Board shall dispose of such application as expeditiously as possible and endeavour shall be made to dispose of such application within a period of two months from the date of receipt of the application.

(2) The Copyright Board may, on receipt of an application under sub-section (]), inquire, or direct such inquiry as it considers necessary to establish the credentials of the applicant and satisfy itself that the application has been made in good faith.

(3) If the Copyright Board is satisfied, after giving to the owners of rights in the work a reasonable opportunity of being heard and after holding such inquiry as it may deem necessary, that a compulsory licence needs to be issued to make the work available to the disabled, it may direct the Registrar of Copyrights to grant to the applicant such a licence to publish the work.

(4) Every compulsory licence issued under this section shall specify the means and format of publication, the period during which the compulsory licence may be exercised and, in the case of issue of copies, the number of copies that may be issued including the rate or royalty:

Provided that where the Copyright Board has issued such a compulsory licence it may, on a further application and after giving reasonable opportunity to the owners of rights, extend the period of such compulsory licence and allow the issue of more copies as it may deem fit.]

31C - Statutory licence for cover versions

10*[(1) Any person desirous of making a cover version, being a sound recording in respect of any literary, dramatic or musical work, where sound recordings of that work have been made by or with the licence or consent of the owner of the right in the work, may do so subject to the provisions of this section:

Provided that such sound recordings shall be in the same medium as the last recording, unless the medium of the last recording is no longer in current commercial use.

(2) The person making the sound recordings shall give prior notice of his intention to make the sound recordings in the manner as may be prescribed, and provide in advance copies of all covers or labels with which the sound recordings are to be sold, and pay in advance, to the owner of rights in each work royalties in respect of all copies to be made by him, at the rate fixed by the Copyright Board in this behalf:

Provided that such sound recordings shall not be sold or issued in any form of packaging or with any cover or label which is likely to mislead or confuse the public as to their identity, and in particular shall not contain the name or depict in any way any performer of an earlier sound recording of the same work or any cinema to graph film in which such sound recording was incorporated and, further, shall state on the cover that it is a cover version made under this section.

(3) The person making such sound recordings shall not make any alteration in the literary or musical work which has not been made previously by or with the consent of the owner of rights, or which is not technically necessary for the purpose of making the sound recordings:

Provided that such sound recordings shall not be made until the expiration of five calendar years after the end of the year in which the first sound recordings of the work was made.

(4) One royalty in respect of such sound recordings shall be paid for a minimum of fifty thousand copies of each work during each calendar year in which copies of it are made:

Provided that the Copyright Board may, by general order, fix a lower minimum in respect of works in a particular language or dialect having regard to the potential circulation of such works.

(5) The person making such sound recordings shall maintain such registers and books of account in respect thereof, including full details of existing stock as may be prescribed and shall allow the owner of rights or his duly authorised agent or representative to inspect all records and books of account relating to such sound recording:

Provided that if on a complaint brought before the Copyright Board to the effect that the owner of rights has not been paid in full for any sound recordings purporting to be made in pursuance of this section, the Copyright Board is, prima facie, satisfied that the complaint is genuine, it may pass an order ex parte directing the person making the sound recording to cease from making further copies and, after holding such inquiry as it considers necessary, make such further order as it may deem fit, including an order for payment of royalty.

Explanation-For the purposes of this section "cover version" means a sound recording made in accordance with this section.]
 
31D - Statutory licence for broadcasting of literary and musical works and sound recording

11*[(1) Any broadcasting organisation desirous of communicating to the public by way of a broadcast or by way of performance of a literary or musical work and sound recording which has already been published may do so subject to the provisions of this section.

(2) The broadcasting organisation shall give prior notice, in such manner as may be prescribed, of its intention to broadcast the work stating the duration and territorial coverage of the broadcast, and shall pay to the owner of rights in each work royalties in the manner and at the rate fixed by the Copyright Board.

(3) The rates of royalty for radio broadcasting shall be different from television broadcasting and the Copyright Board shall fix separate rates for radio broadcasting and television broadcasting.

(4) In fixing the manner and the rate of royalty under sub-section (2), the Copyright Board may require the broadcasting organisation to pay an advance to the owners of rights.

(5) The names of the authors and the principal performers of the work shall, except in case of the broadcasting organisation communicating such work by way of performance, be announced with the broadcast.

(6) No fresh alteration to any literary or musical work, which is not technically necessary for the purpose of broadcasting, other than shortening the work for convenience of broadcast, shall be made without the consent of the owners of rights.

(7) The broadcasting organisation shall-

(a) Maintain such records and books of account, and render to the owners of rights such reports and accounts; and

(b) Allow the owner of rights or his duly authorised agent or representative to inspect all records and books of account relating to such broadcast,in such manner as may be prescribed.

(8) Nothing in this section shall affect the operation of any licence issued or any agreement entered into before the commencement of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012.]
 
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1. Substituted by Act 23 of 1983, section 2, for "radio-diffusion" w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

2. Substituted by Act 38 of 1994, section 2 for "record" w.e.f. 10-5-1995.

3. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -"any Indian work"

4. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : - "licence to the complainant"

5. Omitted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -
"Explanation.--In this sub-section, the expression "Indian work" includes-
(i) an artistic work, the author of which is a citizen of India; and
(ii) a cinematograph film or a 2[sound recording] made or manufactured in India."

6. Omitted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -
"(2) Where two or more persons have made a complaint under sub-section (1), the licence shall be granted to the complainant who in the opinion of the Copyright Board would best serve the interests of the general public."

7. Inserted by Act 23 of 1983,section 12 w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

8. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following : -
"(1) Where, in the case of an Indian work referred to in sub-clause (iii) of clause (1) of section 2, the author is dead or unknown or cannot be traced, or the owner of the copyright in such work cannot be found, any person may apply to the Copyright Board for a license to publish such work or a translation thereof in any language."
 
9. Inserted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012.

10. Inserted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012.

11. Inserted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012.

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Section -32 Licence to produce and publish translations

(1) Any person may apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to produce and publish a translation of a literary or dramatic work in any language 1*[after a period of seven years from the first publication of the work].

1*[(1A)Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), any person may apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to produce and publish a translation, in printed or analogous forms of reproduction, of a literary or dramatic work, other than an Indian work, in any language in general use in India after a period of three years from the first publication of such work, if such translation is required for the purposes of teaching, scholarship or research:

Provided that where such translation is in a language not in general use in any developed country, such application may be made after a period of one year from such publication.]

(2) Every 2*[application under this section] shall be made in such form as may be prescribed and shall state the proposed retail price of a copy of the translation of the work.

(3) Every applicant for a licence under this section shall, along with his application, deposit with the Registrar of Copyrights such fee as may be prescribed.

(4) Where an application is made to the Copyright Board under this section, it may, after holding such inquiry as may be prescribed, grant to the applicant a licence, not being an exclusive licence, to produce and publish a translation of the work in the language mentioned in 3[the application-

(i) Subject to the condition that the applicant shall pay to the owner of the copyright in the work royalties in respect of copies of the translation of the work sold to the public, calculated at such rate as the Copyright Board may, in the circumstances of each case, determine in the prescribed manner; and

(ii) Where such licence is granted on an application under sub-section(1A), subject also to the condition that the licence shall not extend to the export of copies of the translation of the work outside India and every copy of such translation shall contain a notice in the language of such translation that the copy is available for distribution only in India:

Provided that nothing in clause (ii) shall apply to export by Government or any authority under the Government of copies of such translation in a language other than English, French or Spanish in any country if-

(1) Such copies are sent to citizens of India residing outside India or to any association of such citizens outside India; or

(2) Such copies are meant to be used for purposes of teaching, scholarship or research and not for any commercial purpose; and
(3) in either case, the permission for such export has been given by the Government of that country:]

4*[Provided further that no licence under this section] shall be granted, unless-

(a) A translation of the work in the language mentioned in the application has not been published by the owner of the copyright in the work or any person authorised by him, 5[within seven years or three years or one year, as the case may be, of the first publication of the work], or if a translation has been so published, it has been out of print;

(b) The applicant has proved to the satisfaction of the Copyright Board that he had requested and had been denied authorisation by the owner of the copyright to produce and publish such translation, or that 6*[he was, after due diligence on his part, unable to find] the owner of the copyright;

(c) Where the applicant was unable to find the owner of the copyright, he has sent a copy of his request for 7 [such authorisation by registered air mail post to the publisher whose name appears from the work, and in the case of an application for a licence under sub-section (1)], not less than two months before 8*[such application];

9*[(cc) a period of six months in the case of an application under sub-section (1A) (not being an application under the proviso thereto), or nine months in the case of an application under the proviso to that sub-section, has elapsed from the date of making the request under clause (b) of this proviso or where a copy of there quest has been sent under clause (c) of this proviso, from the date of sending of such copy, and the translation of the work in the language mentioned in the application has not been published by the owner of the copyright in the work or any person authorised by him within the said period of six months or nine months, as the case may be;

(ccc) In the case of any application made under sub-section (1A),-

(i) The name of the author and the tide of the particular edition of the work proposed to be translated are printed on all the copies of the translation;

(ii) If the work is composed mainly of illustrations, the provisions of section 32A are also complied with;]

(d) The Copyright Board is satisfied that the applicant is competent to produce and publish a correct translation of the work and possesses the means to pay to the owner of the copyright the royalties payable to him under this section;

(e) The author has not with drawn from circulation copies of the work; and

(f) An opportunity of being heard is given, wherever practicable, to the owner of the copyright in the work.

10*[(5) Any broadcasting authority may apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to produce and publish the translation of-

(a) A work referred to in sub-section (1A) and published in printed or analogous forms of reproduction; or

(b) Any text incorporated in audio-visual fixations prepared and published solely for the purpose of systematic instructional activities, for broadcasting such translation for the purposes of teaching or for the dissemination of the results of specialised, technical or scientific research to the experts in any particular field.

(6) The provisions of sub-sections (2) to (4) in so far as they are relatable to an application under sub-section (1A), shall, with the necessary modifications, apply to the grant of a licence under sub-section (5) and such licence shall not also be granted unless-

(a) The translation is made from a work lawfully acquired;

(b) The broadcast is made through the medium of sound and visual recordings;

(c) Such recording has been lawfully and exclusively made for the purpose of broadcasting in India by the applicant or by other broadcasting agency; and

(d) The translation and the broadcasting of such translation are not used for any commercial purposes.

Explanation-For the purposes of this section,-

(a) "Developed country" means a country which is not a developing country;

(b) "Developing country" means a country which is for the lime being regarded as such in conformity with the practice of the General Assembly of the United Nations;

(c) "Purposes of research" does not include purposes of industrial research, or purposes of research by bodies corporate (not being bodies corporate owned or controlled by Government) or other association or body of persons for commercial purposes;

(d) "Purposes of teaching, research or scholarship" includes-

(i) Purposes of instructional activity at all levels in educational institutions, including Schools, Colleges, Universities and tutorial institutions; and

(ii) Purposes of all other types of organised educational activity.]

32A -11* Licence to reproduce and publish works for certain purposes

(1) Where, after the expiration of the relevant period from the date of the first publication of an edition of a literary, scientific or artistic work,-

(a) The copies of such edition are not made available in India; or

(b) Such copies have not been put on sale in India for a period of six months, to the general public, or in connection with systematic instructional activities at a price reasonably related to that normally charged in India for comparable works by the owner of the right of reproduction or by any person authorised by him in this behalf, any person may apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to reproduce and publish such work in printed or analogous forms of reproduction at the price a which such edition is sold or at a lower price for the purpose of systematic instructional activities.

(2) Every such application shall be made in such form as may be prescribed and shall state the proposed retail price of a copy of the work to be reproduced.

(3) Every applicant for a licence under this section shall, along with his application, deposit with the Copyrights, such fee as may be prescribed.

(4) Where an application is made to the Copyright Board under this section, it may, after holding such inquiry as may be prescribed, grant to the applicant a licence, not being an exclusive licence, to produce and publish a reproduction of the work mentioned in the application subject to the conditions that,-

(i) The applicant shall pay to the owner of the copyright in the work royalties in respect of copies of the reproduction of the work sold to the public, calculated at such rate as the Copyright Board may, in the circumstances of each case, determine in the prescribed manner;

(ii) A licence granted under this section shall not extend to the export of copies of the reproduction of the work outside India and every copy of such reproduction shall contain a notice that the copy is available for distribution only in India:

Provided that no such licence shall be granted unless-

(a) The applicant has proved to the satisfaction of the Copyright Board that he had requested and had been denied authorisation by the owner of the copyright in the work to reproduce and publish such work or that he was, after due diligence on his part, unable to find such owner;

(b) Where the applicant was unable to find the owner of the copyright, he had sent a copy of his request for such authorisation by registered airmail post to the publisher whose name appears from the work not less than three months before the application for the licence;

(c) The Copyright Board is satisfied that the applicant is competent to reproduce and publish an accurate reproduction of the work and possesses the means to pay to the owner of the copyright the royalties payable to him under this section;

(d) The applicant undertakes to reproduce and publish the work at such price as may be fixed by the Copyright Board, being a price reasonably related to the price normally charged in India for works of the same standard on the same or similar subjects;

(e) A period of six months in the case of an application for the reproduction and publication of any work of natural science, physical science, mathematics or technology, or a period of three months in the case of an application for the reproduction and publication of any other work, has elapsed from the date of making the request under clause (a), or where a copy of the request has been sent under clause (b), from the date of sending of a copy, and a reproduction of the work has not been published by the owner of the copyright in the work or any person authorised by him within the said period of six months or, three months, as the case may be;

(f) The name of the author and the title of the particular edition of the work proposed to be reproduced are printed on all the copies of the reproduction;

(g) The author has not with drawn from circulation copies of the work; and

(h) An opportunity of being heard is given, wherever practicable, to the owner of the copyright in the work.

(5) No licence to reproduce and publish the translation of a work shall be granted under this section unless such translation has been published by the owner of the right of translation to any person authorised by him and the translation is not in a language in general use in India.

(6) The provisions of this section shall also apply to the reproduction and publication, or translation into a language in general use in India, of any text incorporated in audiovisual fixations prepared and published solely for the purpose of systematic instructional activities.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this section, "relevant period", in relation to any work, means a period of-

(a) Seven years from the date of the first publication of that work, where the application is for there production and publication of any work of, or relating to, ficlion, poetry, drama, music or art;

(b) Three years from the date of the first publication of that work, where the application is for there production and publication of any work of, or relating to, natural science, physical science, mathematics or technology; and

(c) Five years from the date of the first publication of that work, in any other case.

32A .12* Licence to reproduce and publish works for certain purposes.-

(1) Where, after the expiration of the relevant period from the date of the first publication of an edition of a literary, scientific or artistic work,-

(a) The copies of such edition are not made available in India; or

(b) Such copies have not been put on sale in India for a period of six months, to the general public, or in connection with systematic instructional activities at a price reasonably related to that normally charged in India for comparable works by the owner of the right of reproduction or by any person authorised by him in this behalf, any person may apply to the Copyright Board for a licence to reproduce and publish such work in printed or analogous forms of reproduction at the price a which such edition is sold or at a lower price for the purpose of systematic instructional activities.

(2) Every such application shall be made in such form as may be prescribed and shall state the proposed retail price of a copy of the work to be reproduced.

(3) Every applicant for a licence under this section shall, along with his application, deposit with the Copyrights, such fee as may be prescribed.

(4) Where an application is made to the Copyright Board under this section, it may, after holding such inquiry as may be prescribed, grant to the applicant a licence, not being an exclusive licence, to produce and publish a reproduction of the work mentioned in the application subject to the conditions that,-

(i) The applicant shall pay to the owner of the copyright in the work royalties in respect of copies of the reproduction of the work sold to the public, calculated at such rate as the Copyright Board may, in the circumstances of each case, determine in the prescribed manner;

(ii) A licence granted under this section shall not extend to the export of copies of the reproduction of the work outside India and every copy of such reproduction shall contain a notice that the copy is available for distribution only in India:

Provided that no such licence shall be granted unless-

(a) The applicant has proved to the satisfaction of the Copyright Board that he had requested and had been denied authorisation by the owner of the copyright in the work to reproduce and publish such work or that he was, after due diligence on his part, unable to find such owner;

(b) Where the applicant was unable to find the owner of the copyright, he had sent a copy of his request for such authorisation by registered airmail post to the publisher whose name appears from the work not less than three months before the application for the licence;

(c) The Copyright Board is satisfied that the applicant is competent to reproduce and publish an accurate reproduction of the work and possesses the means to pay to the owner of the copyright the royalties payable to him under this section;

(d) The applicant undertakes to reproduce and publish the work at such price as may be fixed by the Copyright Board, being a price reasonably related to the price normally charged in India for works of the same standard on the same or similar subjects;

(e) A period of six months in the case of an application for the reproduction and publication of any work of natural science, physical science, mathematics or technology, or a period of three months in the case of an application for the reproduction and publication of any other work, has elapsed from the date of making the request under clause (a), or where a copy of the request has been sent under clause (b), from the date of sending of a copy, and a reproduction of the work has not been published by the owner of the copyright in the work or any person authorised by him within the said period of six months or, three months, as the case may be;

(f) The name of the author and the title of the particular edition of the work proposed to be reproduced are printed on all the copies of the reproduction;

(g) The author has not with drawn from circulation copies of the work; and

(h) An opportunity of being heard is given, wherever practicable, to the owner of the copyright in the work.

(5) No licence to reproduce and publish the translation of a work shall be granted under this section unless such translation has been published by the owner of the right of translation to any person authorised by him and the translation is not in a language in general use in India.

(6) The provisions of this section shall also apply to the reproduction and publication, or translation into a language in general use in India, of any text incorporated in audiovisual fixations prepared and published solely for the purpose of systematic instructional activities.

Explanation.-For the purposes of this section, "relevant period", in relation to any work, means a period of-

(a) Seven years from the date of the first publication of that work, where the application is for there production and publication of any work of, or relating to, fiction, poetry, drama, music or art;

(b) Three years from the date of the first publication of that work, where the application is for there production and publication of any work of, or relating to, natural science, physical science, mathematics or technology; and

(c) Five years from the date of the first publication of that work, in any other case.

32B - Termination of licences issued under this Chapter

(1) If, at any time after the granting of a licence to produce and publish the translation of a work in any language under sub-section (1A) of section 32 thereafter in this sub-section referred to as the licensed work), the owner of the copyright in the work or any person authorised by him publishes a translation of such work in the same language and which is substantially the same in content at a price reasonably related to the price normally charged in India for the translation of works of the same standard on the same or similar subject, the licence so granted shall be terminated:

Provided that no such termination shall fake effect until after the expiry of a period of three months from the date of service of a notice in the prescribed manner on fhe person holding such licence by the owner of the right of translation intimating the publication of the translation as aforesaid:

Provided further that copies of the licensed work produced and published by the person holding such licence before the termination of the licence takes effect may continue to be sold or distributed until the copies already produced and published are exhausted.

(2) If, at any time after the granting of a licence to produce and publish the reproduction or translation of any work under section 32A, the owner of the right of reproduction or any person authorised by him sells or distributes copies of such work or a translation thereof, as the case may be, in the same language and which is substantially the same in content at a price reasonably related to the price normally charged in India for works of the same standard on the same or similar subject, the licence so granted shall be terminated:

Provided that no such termination shall take effect until after the expiry of a period of three months from the date of service of a notice in the prescribed manner on the person holding the licence by the owner of the right of reproduction intimating the sale or distribution of the copies of the editions of work as aforesaid:

Provided further that any copies already reproduced by the licensee before such termination takes effect may continue to be sold or distributed until the copies already produced are exhausted.]

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1. Inserted by Act 23 of 1983,section 13 w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

2. Substituted by Act 23 of 1983, section 13, for "such application" w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

3. Substituted by Act 23 of 1983,section 13, for certain words w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

4. Substituted by Act 23 of 1983,section 13, for "provided that no such licence" w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

5. Substituted by Act 23 of 1983, section 13, for "within seven years of the first publication of the work" w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

6. Substituted by Act 23 of 1983, section 13, for "he was unable to find" w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

7. Substituted by Act 23 of 1983,section 13, for "such authorization to the publisher whose name appears from the work" w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

8. Substituted by Act 23 of 1983, section 13, for "the application for the licence" w.e.f.9-8-1984.

9. Inserted by Act 23 of 1983, section 13 w.e.f.9-8-1984.

10. Inserted by Act 23 of 1983,section 13 w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

11. Inserted by Act 23 of 1983, section 14 w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

12. Inserted by Act 23 of 1983, section 14 w.e.f. 9-8-1984.

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Section -33 Registration of copyright society

(1) No person or association of persons shall, after coming into force of the Copyright (Amendment) Act. 1994 commence or, carry on me business of issuing or granting licences in respect of any work in which copyright subsists or in respect of any other rights conferred by this Act except under or in accordance with the registration granted under sub-section (3):

Provided that an owner of copyright shall, in his individual capacity, continue to have the right to grant licences in respect of his own works consistent with his obligations as a member of the registered copyright society:

1*[Provided further that the business of issuing or granting license in respect of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works incorporated in a cinematograph films or sound recordings shall be carried out only through a copyright society duly registered under this Act:

Provided also] that a performing rights society functioning in accordance with the provisions of section 33 on the date immediately before the coming into force of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1994 shall be deemed to be a copyright society for the purposes of this Chapter and every such society shall get itself registered within a period of one year from the date of commencement of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1994.

(2) Any association of persons who fulfils such conditions as may be prescribed may apply for permission to do the business specified in sub-section (1) to the Registrar of Copyrights who shall submit the application to the Central Government.

(3) The Central Government may, having regard to the interests of the authors and other owners of rights under this Act, the interest and convenience of the public and in particular of the groups of persons who are most likely to seek licences in respect of the applicants, register such association of persons as a copyright society subject to such conditions as may be prescribed:

Provided that the Central Government shall not ordinarily register more than one copyright society to do business in respect of the same class of works.

2*[(3A) The registration granted to a copyright society under sub-section (3) shall be for a period of five years and may be renewed from time to time before the end of every five years on a request in the prescribed form and the Central Government may renew the registration after considering the report of Registrar of Copyrights on the working of the copyright society under section 36:

Provided that the renewal of the registration of a copyright society shall be subject to the continued collective control of the copyright society being shared with the authors of works in their capacity as owners of copyright or of the right to receive royalty:

Provided further that every copyright society already registered before the coming into force of the copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 shall get itself registered under this  Chapter within a period of one year from the date of commencement of the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012.]

(4) The Central Government may, if it is satisfied that a copyright society is being managed in a manner detrimental to the interests of the 3*[authors and other owners of right] concerned, cancel the registration of such society after such inquiry as may be prescribed.

(5) If the Central Government is of the opinion that in the interest of the 3*[authors and other owners of right] concerned, 2*[or for non-compliance of sections 33A, sub-section (3) of section 35 and section 36 or any change carried out in the instrument by which the copyright society is established or incorporated and registered by the Central Government without prior notice to it] it is necessary so to do it may, by order suspend the registration of such society pending inquiry for such period not exceeding one year as may be specified in such order under sub-section (4) and that Government shall appoint an administrator to discharge the functions of the copyright society.
 
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1. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following :- "Provided further"

2. Inserted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012.

3. Substituted by the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012 (Act No. 27 of 2012) w.e.f. 21.06.2012 for the following :-"owners of rights"
 
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